A Puzzle in Leather & Cartonnage Fragments

P. Mich. Inv. 4088 (recto)

These two fragments composed of layers of leather, cloth, and papyrus are clearly related to one another, but how do they fit together? Are these fragments of a book cover, or perhaps a pouch, satchel, or small case? What is the meaning of the cord lacing? Is it to finish and secure the turned-in edges of the leather? Is it a mend added to hold together a leather cover and a board lining that was delaminating and falling apart? 

P. Mich. Inv. 4088

P. Mich. Inv. 4088 (recto)

P. Mich. Inv. 4088

P. Mich. Inv. 4088 (verso)

P. Mich. Inv. 553

P. Mich. Inv. 553 (recto)

P. Mich. Inv. 553

P. Mich. Inv. 553 (verso)

P. Mich. Mich. Inv. 4087

P. Mich. Inv. 4087 (recto)

P. Mich. Inv. 4087

P. Mich. Inv. 4087 (verso)

2. Leather Model of Wrapper-Style Binding

Cartonnage from a Book Board