Food and Beverage Retailing in 19th and early 20th century America

 

Book cover, green with fancy gold lettering and black and gold designs
Carbonated Beverages. 1882

Table of Contents

Introduction

The Janice B. Longone Culinary Archive at the William L. Clements Library at the University of Michigan holds a number of items of interest to researchers of the food and beverage retail trade in the United States, with particular strengths in 19th and early 20th century works. There are more than 30 primary-source materials in the collection, primarily handbooks and catalogs used by grocers, shopkeepers, and soda fountain operators. Additionally, a number of other items can be found in the University of Michigan library system, primarily at the Hatcher and Shapiro Libraries, as well as online as part of the HathiTrust collection. These items can all be found by searching Library Catalog Search. Further scholarly (and popular) articles can be found by searching Library Article Search. Tips for using both Library Catalog Search and Library Article Search to find materials will be given throughout this resource guide, and can also be find on the U-M Library website.

There are a number of interesting research topics for those interested in food and beverage retailing in 19th century America. This was a period of great change in the United States and the world, with revolutions in transportation, communication, industrialization, and business. This century saw retailing in the United States make a shift towards a focus on consumers - this was the beginning of the consumer culture of the 20th century. For the first time, people of almost all classes were regarded as consumers and offered choices that would have only been available to the wealthy a few generations earlier. This century also saw the beginnings of consumption as a social activity, with the rise of the public market houses and soda fountains. The 19th century also saw the seeds planted for the explosive post-Prohibition growth of the American beer and wine industries. These beginning attempts at national industries would grow into the giants we know today. The following sections of this guide will serve as more in-depth introductions to these topics as well as other areas of interest.

Transition from Markets to Self-Serve Grocery Stores

Background

Food retailing took two different paths in 19th-century America, although each of them lead to the 20th-century domination of supermarkets. Larger towns and cities saw a movement from open-air markets with numerous vendors towards shopping indoors from a single proprietor, whereas small towns and rural areas saw the single-proprietor general store eventually displaced by the growth of chain grocery stores that also took over in the cities.

At the beginning of the 19th century, food retailing in the larger towns and cities was beginning its movement indoors. Prior to this time, food was mainly sold in open markets. These open markets were often scheduled in spaces accessible to the town's docks, as in the case of Boston's Great Street Market, which was in center of town directly down the road from the docks. Schedules were often imposed on the markets, with some goods only available on certain days.

While some of these open markets endured through the 19th century, towns increasingly built and supported market houses. These structures not only allowed vendors to do business in any sort of weather, but also allowed for increasing regulation. Furthermore, rents and other fees collected allowed cities to profit from their support of a public good, after building costs were paid off.

The first type of market house that was commonly built was the “street market.” Locating these buildings in the middle of very wide streets allowed the city to avoid costly real estate on the city block, but imposed size limitations on the buildings. The resulting very long and narrow buildings did help impose a smooth traffic flow on the market goers, as well as allowing for deliveries to be made along the side directly on the street. However, as urban populations increased throughout the 19th century, traffic on already congested streets became nearly impassable. Cities were compelled to move their public markets onto the city blocks in order to ease congestion on the main streets.

In contrast to the relatively utilitarian structures that served as street market houses, which were often little more than long, narrow sheds, the new market houses of the mid-19th century were often more elaborate architectural achievements. Examples of these structures that remain in use today can be found in Boston (Quincy Market) and Philadelphia (Reading Terminal Market). These more permanent structures allowed for advances that made shopping more engaging, more comfortable, and more sanitary for the public. Vendors who rented out stalls on a long-term basis were able to use their space to create elaborate displays of their goods, including special displays for holidays. Furthermore, these new structures made the development and adoption of heating and refrigeration systems easier, allowing for customers to shop in comfort during the cold winter and for vendors to keep perishable food fresher longer in the hot summer.

In rural areas and small towns, population was not large enough to support public markets. Instead general stores were operated as a “one-stop shop” where shoppers could find everything they could not make themselves under one roof. Storeowners would make bulk purchases from “drummers” (or “jobbers”) who, in turn, made purchases from wholesalers and public markets in large cities. More successful storeowners would travel to the city themselves from time to time, in order to keep up connections and judge market conditions for themselves. These shopping trips occurred as often as the shop owner's business would allow them to be away from the store (which was infrequent, even for the more successful owners who could afford help at the store). In addition to goods, the shop owners would also bring back news from the city, allowing them to act as a social connection between rural populations and the larger cities.

While the public market houses were developing and flourishing in the late 19th century, they were increasingly subject to competition from independent grocery stores. These smaller stores were often located closer to (or, indeed, in the middle of) residential areas, and usually specialized in the sale of dry, packaged goods and imported specialty goods. Having grown out of the “pepperers” of medieval England, the most common items of trade for grocers in the 19th century were spices, sugar, flour, coffee, tea, and dried fruits and nuts. While unable to compete with the markets on size and selection, grocery stores used their small size to their advantage by being more flexible in location. As populations moved from city centers to the outskirts of cities, and then into suburban areas in the early 20th century, public markets were unable to follow these dispersed populations as grocery stores could. In a move to keep costs low despite the small size of individual stores, the first chain stores were started by companies like the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company (A&P). These moves followed the larger trends in American business towards greater corporatization and systematization. Despite their advantages, grocery stores faced one cost public markets did not: the small army of clerks necessary for taking and putting together customers' orders.

This last cost disappeared when Clarence Saunders opened the first Piggly Wiggly store in Memphis in 1916. This store was the first truly “self-service” grocery store, a practice Saunders patented in 1917. Instead of placing their orders with clerks, shoppers were free to move about in aisle after aisle of products, which they were able to handle and examine for themselves. After putting together their own orders, customers then proceeded to checkout counters where cashiers tallied their purchases. The modern grocery store as we know it had been born, and would begin its 20th-century move from the population centers towards the country.

Finding materials

While much has been written about the development of the modern super-, mega-, and hyper-markets, much less work has been done on this transitional period. However, valuable information on this period can be found in primary source materials, as well as in smaller sections of broader secondary source materials. The William L. Clements collection contains a number of helpful documents. These include the catalogues delivered to grocery shoppers from such companies as Abraham & Straus (Brooklyn); Mitchell, Fletcher, & Co. (Philadelphia); and H.K & F.B. Thurber and Co. (New York City). Also of interest is the work The Art of Window Dressing, which was intended to teach grocery store owners how to best display their specials and other advertisements in their front-window spaces.

For insight into the practice of general store owners, it is helpful to consult the guidebooks in the Clements collection. Chief among these are the collection of works from Dr. Chase. Beginning in 1858 and continuing for almost 50 years, Dr. Chase was a writer, publisher, and doctor in Ann Arbor. His many editions of Recipes, or Information for Everybody were collections of recipes and techniques for a number of professions, from blacksmiths to tailors, including grocers and druggists. The great breadth of coverage of these guidebooks give an idea of the many functions of the general store, which was the only retail business for many miles in some areas.

The most important study of this period appears in the first half of the work The American Grocery Store: The Business Evolution of an Architectural Space, which covers this period from the first open-air markets of the colonies through the opening of the first chain stores. Also helpful for gaining a historical perspective are a number of works on the history of retailing in England, such as The Complete Tradesman and The Shopkeeper's World 1830–1914.

Information on Searching Library of Congress Subject Headings

In addition to the materials given in this resource guide, further materials can be found in Library Catalog Search using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) or keywords. LCSH comprises a controlled vocabulary of subject terms, as determined and maintained by the Library of Congress. These subject terms can be entered into the “Subject” field in Library Catalog Search in order to find helpful related materials, but must belong to the list of terms allowed by LCSH. One helpful technique for finding appropriate LCSHs is to start with a “Keyword” search, which is unrestricted, and then look under the “Subject” field on the left-hand side of the results page for related subject headings. Further information on searching for appropriate LCSH can be found at the Library of Congress Authorities.

Helpful secondary source materials can be found by searching using the following Library of Congress Subject Headings:

 

  • Marketplaces
  • Marketplaces United States
  • Supermarkets — United States — History
  • Grocery Trade — United States — History
  • Department Stores (several large department stores briefly had “grocery“ departments in the late 19th century)
  • Grocery Stores
  • Grocery Shopping
  • Markets

 

Also helpful are the following keywords:

 

  • Architecture
  • Public Markets
  • General Stores
  • Country Stores

 

Useful sources can be found by focusing on the following academic disciplines (available as a limiting option in Library Catalog Search):

 

  • Business
  • Architecture
  • American Culture
  • United States History and/or History (General)
  • Social Sciences
  • Urban Planning

 

Selected Bibliography

Primary Sources

A useful guide for grocers, distillers, hotel & tavern–keepers, and wine and spirit dealers of every denomination; being a complete directory for making and managing all kinds...
Clements Library: C2 1829 Be

A guide to wealth: Over one hundred valuable recipes for saloons, inn-keepers, grocers, druggists, merchants, and for families generally
Clements Library: C2 1858 Ch
Also available at Bentley Historical Library: DA 2 C487 G947 and online

Book of useful knowledge: a cyclopaedia of six thousand practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, and trades, including medicine, pharmacy, and...
Clements Library: C2 1859 Co

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon-keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1865 Ch

The market assistant: containing a brief description of every article of human food sold in the public markets of the cities of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Brooklyn:...
Clements Library: C2 1867 De

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1870 Ch

The artizans' guide and everybody's assistant: containing over two thousand new and valuable receipts and tables in almost every branch of business connected with civilized...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1873 Mo

Trade circular and price list of H.K. & F.B. Thurber & Co., importers & wholesale grocers, West Broadway, Reade and Hudson streets...N.Y., and 13 Rue de Conde, Bordeaux,...
Clements Library: Broadsides

The grocers' manual: a guide book for the information and use of grocers: containing a full description of all the goods sold by the trade: also rates of fare, adulterations,...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1879 Fe

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about one thousand practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1900 Ch

Grocery catalogue of Abraham and Straus
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1901 Ab

The art of window dressing for grocers
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1902 Ba

Catalogue of fine groceries: all prices quoted are subject to market changes: July 1918
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1918 Mi

Secondary Sources

The complete tradesman: a study of retailing, 1550–1820
Hatcher Graduate Library: HF 5429.6 .G7 C68 2000
Shapiro Undergraduate Library: HF 5429.6 .G7 C68 2000

McCalla, Douglas. "Retailing in the Countryside: Upper Canadian General Stores in the Mid-Nineteenth Century." Business and Economic History 26, no. 2 (Winter, 1997): 393-403.
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Gwynn, David. Groceteria.com: exploring supermarket history.
This website focuses on post 1920's history, but it offers some information and other sources, as well as message boards.

Food and drink in America: a history
Hatcher Graduate Library: GT2853.U5 H661

Lohner, Myrtle M. "Customer attitude toward Chicago grocery-store practices." The journal of business of the University of Chicago. Vol. 10, No. 3 (Jul 1937), pp. 233-50. doi: 10.1086/232456
Article available online (Michigan access only)

The American grocery store: the business evolution of an architectural space
Hatcher Graduate Library: HF 5469.23 .U62 M391 1993
Shapiro Undergraduate Library: HF 5469.23 .U62 M391 1993

Phillips, Charles F. "A history of the Kroger Grocery & Baking Company." National marketing review. Vol. 1, No. 3 (Winter, 1936), pp. 204-15.
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Food in history
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: GT 2850 .T17 1973

A country storekeeper in Pennsylvania: creating economic networks in early America, 1790–1807
Hatcher Graduate Library: HF 5429.5 .S35 W46 2008

The shopkeeper's world 1830–1914
Hatcher Graduate Library: HF 5429.6 .G7 W561 1983

Encyclopedia of food and culture
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: GT 2850 .E531 2003

The food timeline
Website.

The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America.
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: TX 349 .O94 2004
Shapiro Undergraduate Library - Reference Shelves: TX 349 .O94 2004

The encyclopedia of food...
Hatcher Graduate Library: TX 349 .W256e

The Chicago produce market
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1918 No
Copies also in the Buhr Shelving Facility: HD 9008 .C4 N93

Gatlin's grocer's handbook of standards.
Available from HathiTrust

Government Regulation

Background

Today, consumers are able to pick up any packaged food available in a grocery store and find a plethora of information about the contents. Labeling of ingredients, allergens, and nutrition information is required and regulated by the federal government. Food producers are required to adhere to strict truth–in–labeling and truth–in–advertising rules. This wasn't always the case, however. The Division of Chemistry of the USDA, the precursor to the FDA, was not formed until 1862, and there was no comprehensive federal law regulating food, beverages, and drugs until the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (which led to the creation of the FDA). In the absence of federal regulation, various state laws were aimed at the sale of mislabeled or misrepresented food and drugs. However, these state laws only applied within each state's borders, and with the growth of the national rail network, interstate regulation was becoming an increasingly pressing issue. More and more, food was produced, processed, and sold in more than one state. A national law was necessary for the protection of consumers, who were risking not only their health, but also their money in purchasing and consuming adulterated products.

After he was elected Chief Chemist of the Division of Chemistry in 1883, Harvey Washington Wiley led the charge to begin a systematic examination of the levels and types of adulterants present in various food products available in the United States. The findings from this research were published in a ten–part series titled Food and Food Adulterants (published between 1887 and 1902). With these published findings and the cooperation of state regulators, activist women's groups, and physicians' associations, Wiley began pressing the federal government to pass a comprehensive national law. Adding to this pressure were the writings of muckraker journalists, such as Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle. Finally in 1906 Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act, which was signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt. Under this law, it became a crime to engage in the interstate transport of any adulterated food or drugs. It also became a crime to misbrand any food or drugs. The oversight of these new regulations fell to the Bureau of Chemistry, which later grew into the FDA.

The issue of weights and measures also came to the fore throughout the 19th century as consumers more often purchased their food and beverages from grocery stores (instead of directly from the producer). Consumers purchasing a pound of meat or a gallon of ale had no way of knowing if the amount they purchased was actually the amount advertised by the shopkeeper, as shopkeepers did all of the measuring themselves, and often used devices that were hard for the customer to read. As the home economics movement began to gain force in the early 20th century, however, young women were encouraged and taught to take careful control of their household finances — this included being sure that when paying for a pound of meat, you were actually getting a pound of meat. Guidebooks added sections on “householding” with information for women on how to understand the markets, as well as how to plan “marketing” trips in order to maximize their effectiveness and efficiency. With this rising awareness, scale manufacturers began building scales that were easily readable by the consumer, as well as scales that would give the price for a weighed amount of food, instead of just the weight. In this manner, both grocer and customer could see the price and be confident in a more honest transaction.

Unlike the case of the Pure Food and Drug Act, the issue of weights and measures regulation has never been taken up at a federal level. Instead, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains handbooks, which are compiled by representatives from the state level that outline recommended standards for weights and measures. The information in these handbooks is then usually codified and regulated at the state level.

Finding Materials

There is a wealth of information available for researchers interested in the topics of government regulation, food adulteration, and the standardization and systematization of the food and drink industries. Resources can be found in a number of different disciplines, from chemistry and engineering to law and American culture. A number of these sources may require some specialized knowledge. Broad overviews of the topic can be found in a number of reference works; The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America is the most comprehensive. Also useful is The Encyclopedia of Food, a reference work from the early 20th century written by Artemas Ward, as well as The Food Timeline, a website collection from a variety of sources. These latter two sources are particularly helpful to researchers seeking references to specific products, such as coffee or particular spices. A more specialized, but still helpful source is Westervelt's Pure Food and Drug Laws, a law reference book published only 6 years after the passing of the Pure Food and Drug Act, which discusses law on both a national and state level.

There are two books available at the Hatcher Graduate library that describe the work that lead up to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. The first, Pure Food: Securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906, focuses a bit more on the “drug” side of the issue, but does provide a good discussion of the involvement of the muckrakers, particularly Upton Sinclair. The other work, The Pure Food, Drink, and Drug Crusaders, 1879–1914, is quite useful for those researchers interested in how women's; groups helped secure passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, and the effects of the Progressive Era on both food and drug regulation and women's rights.

In the Clements' collection, the most relevant works for this topic are the many guides and handbooks written for grocers, merchants, and homemakers in the second half of the 19th century through the early 20th century. Chief among these are the collection of works from Dr. Chase. Beginning in 1858 and continuing for almost 50 years, Dr. Chase was a writer, publisher, and doctor in Ann Arbor. The many editions of his Recipes, or Information for Everybody were collections of recipes and techniques for a number of professions, including grocers and druggists. In these recipes researchers will not only note an overriding concern for the health of the end products, but will also find a number of recommendations which would be considered adulteration by today's standards. Some recipes recommend “stretching out” honey, wines, and vinegars using water, sugar, and flavorings. Other guides of particular relevance to this topic include A Useful Guide for Grocers, Distillers, Hotel & Tavern–keepers, the Book of Useful Knowledge, The Market Assistant, and The Grocer's Manual. As noted above, many of these guides added sections geared toward householders when the home economics movement began; these sections can be helpful for perspective on the consumers' point of view. Also helpful for researching this topic are books such as The Business of the Household, as well as other books found in the resource guide on “Advice to New Housekeepers.”[WILL NEED TO SET NEW LINK]

In addition to these materials, further materials can be found by searching Library Catalog Search using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) or keywords. For more information on using LCSH, see the notes on searching in the above section.

Helpful secondary source materials can be found by searching using the following Library of Congress Subject Headings:

 

  • Food Adulteration and Inspection
  • Food Law and Legislation
  • Adulterations
  • Consumer Protection
  • Public Health
  • Food Contamination
  • Wine Adulteration
  • Advertising—Food—Law and legislation
  • Food additives—Law and legislation
  • Food adulteration and inspection—Law and legislation
  • Food—Labeling—Law and legislation
  • Grocery trade—Law and legislation
  • Margarine—Law and legislation
  • Sugar laws and legislation

 

Also, the following keywords may prove helpful:

  • Pure Food
  • Analysis of Food
  • Food Inspection
  • Any number of various foods/products of interest (Coffee, spices, wine, flour, meat, etc.)

 

Useful sources can be found by focusing on the following academic disciplines (available as a limiting option in Library Catalog Search):

 

  • Health Sciences
  • Public Health
  • Business
  • United States History and/or History (General)
  • Social Sciences
  • Chemistry
  • Government, Politics and Law
  • Government Information
  • American Culture
  • Law and Legal Studies

     

 

Selected Bibliography

Primary Sources

 

A useful guide for grocers, distillers, hotel & tavern–keepers, and wine and spirit dealers of every denomination; being a complete directory for making and managing all kinds...
Clements Library: C2 1829 Be

A guide to wealth: Over one hundred valuable recipes for saloons, inn–keepers, grocers, druggists, merchants, and for families generally
Clements Library: Pam 1858 Ch
Also available at the Bentley Historical Library: DA 2 C487 G947

Book of useful knowledge: a cyclopaedia of six thousand practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, and trades, including medicine, pharmacy, and...
Clements Library: C2 1859 Co

Sugar duties (memorials From the trade): return to an order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 28 February 1873...
Clements Library: F2 1862 Gr no. 2

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1865 Ch

The market assistant: containing a brief description of every article of human food sold in the public markets of the cities of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Brooklyn:...
Clements Library: C2 1867 De

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1870 Ch

The artizans' guide and everybody's assistant: containing over two thousand new and valuable receipts and tables in almost every branch of business connected with civilized...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1873 Mo

The grocers' manual: a guide book for the information and use of grocers: containing a full description of all the goods sold by the trade: also rates of fare, adulterations,...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1879 Fe

Foods and food adulterants, vol. 1–4
Foods and food adulterants, vol. 5–8
Available in HathiTrust

Grocerdom: a history of the New York and Brooklyn Grocers' Associations
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1892 Gr

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about one thousand practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1900 Ch

Home helps: a pure food cook book: a useful collection of up–to–date practical recipes...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1910 Ho

The business of the household
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1918 Ta

Toledo Scale Collection, 1900–1980, MSS–153.
University of Toledo Library, Digital Resource Commons

Secondary Sources

The pure food, drink, and drug crusaders, 1879–1914
Hatcher Graduate Library: HD 9000.9 .U5 G661 1999

Hess, Herbert W. “History and present status of the “Truth–in–advertising” movement as carried on by the vigilance committee of the associated advertising clubs of the world.” The annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 101 (May 1922): 211-220. doi: 10.1177/000271622210100132
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Food and drink in America: a history
Hatcher Graduate Library: GT 2853 .U5 H661

Pure food: securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906
Hatcher Graduate Library: KF 3864.526 .A16 Y681 1989

The food timeline
Website.

The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America.
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: TX 349 .O94 2004
Shapiro Undergraduate Library - Reference Shelves: TX 349 .O94 2004

The encyclopedia of food...
Hatcher Graduate Library: TX 349 .W256e

American pure food and drug laws
Buhr Shelving Facility: TX 530 .U5 W5

Barham, John. “The adulteration, misbranding, and imitation of foods, etc., in the District of Columbia, etc.” Report to accompany H.R. 9677. Government Document. May 10, 1900.
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Soda Fountains

Background

In 1767, Joseph Priestley discovered that water that was held above a vat of fermenting beer became fizzy and had a pleasantly tart taste. Several years later, in 1772, Priestley had discovered another process for impregnating water with carbon dioxide, this time by dripping sulfuric acid onto chalk. At more or less the same time, the Swedish professor Torben Bergman had independently discovered a similar process. The most cost–effective combination for producing carbonated water turned out to involve dripping the acid onto ground marble, which was available as scrap from construction sites. Machines in a large range of sizes were built for this carbonation process, and America's obsession with fizzy water was born.

The first additions to the plain carbonated water were various combinations of minerals. These new concoctions were meant to replicate the taste and purported healing properties of the water from many famous mineral springs. The waters from these springs, such as Vichy in France, and Selters in Germany, were thought to be beneficial to the drinkers' health in various ways. In the 18th century, a number of these springs were found in the United States; locations like Saratoga Springs and Yellow Springs provided allegedly rejuvenating getaways for the wealthy and fashionable. Because a trip to one of these springs was out of reach of most people, manufacturers and retailers began emulating and selling waters based on the dissolved mineral contents of the springs. After these first drinks, it was discovered that adding fruit syrups to the fizzy water would produce a sweet and refreshing drink, instead of the tart, bracing drink produced by the mineral additions. In time eggs, cream, ice creams, and preserved fruits were all added to the soda, in addition to the fruit syrups.

Several methods of storing and dispensing this carbonated water were used: the water could be bottled and stoppered (most common in Europe), dispensed from a syphon, or (most commonly in the United States) dispensed from a soda fountain. Soda fountains became elaborate and highly decorative appliances that would not only dispense the carbonated water, but also chill the it and dispense flavored syrups. The term “soda fountain&8221; referred not only to these appliance, but also to the businesses that used them. Soda fountains became extraordinarily popular in the last half of the 19th century through the first half of the 20th century. They were usually located in pharmacies, department stores, ice cream parlors, and train stations; there were also free–standing soda fountains in larger cities. “soda jerks,” whose work was a skillful combination of drink mixing and theater, operated the soda fountains. Going to a soda fountain was an experience — from the crisp white uniforms of the jerks, to the elaborate silver and marble fountains, to the refreshing concoctions mixed up.

Unlike taverns, which catered mainly to men, soda fountains were able to provide a fun and social experience for all. In cities that were large enough to support many soda fountains, there were often several different types. For example, in New York City, there was a fountain in the Wall Street area that catered to men, serving bracing, powerful drinks; there was also a ladies' fountain located near the shopping district, which served sweeter and daintier drinks. There was even a “family fountain” near Madison Square Garden, which had something for everyone, including fun drinks for children. In addition to locations like these, soda fountains in big cities were often located near train stations, or even on the sidewalks in some neighborhoods. The variety of locations allowed the soda fountain to be an experience for all, whether rich or poor, of whatever age or gender.

Eventually, however, pre–mixed sodas were increasingly canned or bottled, and, as Americans moved into the suburbs and away from city commercial districts, it was easier to drive to the grocery store to purchase soda. Despite this change of venue, Americans' love affair with soda has never died, even as their obsession with soda fountains has waned.

Finding Materials

Several helpful secondary sources on the history and operations of soda fountains have been published, especially during the renewed interest in cocktails and mixed drinks over the first decade of the 21st century. Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains is quite helpful as a historical exploration of the entire development of soda fountains, from the days of mineral springs through the downfall of the American soda fountain. Fix the Pumps, on the other hand, is much more concise in its history, but spends a good deal more time on explaining how to make a number of soda fountain staples. A number of helpful works can also be found by searching antiques catalogs that focus on soda fountain and pharmacy equipment and accessories. An example of this last type is Drugstore and Soda Fountain Antiques, found in the bibliography below.

In the Clements' collection, there are a number of very useful primary source materials for researchers interested in soda water and soda fountains. The majority of related documents are either catalogs of necessary equipment or guidebooks containing recipes and tips on how to run a successful soda fountain. These works are useful not only to researchers interested in tracing the growth and history of soda fountains, but also to collectors and business researchers interested in the revival of nostalgic soda fountains. Many of the guidebooks and catalogs contain helpful descriptions of how to use and maintain the various (sometimes complex) equipment, as well as giving historical values for these pieces.

Of particular interest in the collection is the American Soda Book of Receipts and Suggestions, published by the American Soda Fountain Company. This company was a trust formed between the four largest soda fountain manufacturers at the time: Tufts, Puffer, Lippincott, and Matthews. As such, they were able to monopolize the industry, controlling prices and dictating practices. This book lays out procedures and tips for running a soda fountain — through these guidelines, researchers can gain a very good picture of the running of a typical soda fountain at the turn of the century.

Also helpful are the books Carbonated Beverages and Illustrated Catalogue And Price List of the American Ice Cream Soda Water Apparatus, which contain extensive illustrations and descriptions of the workings of a large variety of apparatuses used in the running of a typical soda fountain.

When looking for information on soda fountains, it is important to keep in mind that the soda fountain craze began in the late 19th century, but reached its peak during Prohibition. Often popular histories portray the 1940's and 50's as the heyday of the American soda fountain, but, by these decades, the popularity of soda fountains was already on the wane due to the increase in grocery store soda availability.

In addition to these materials, further materials can be found by searching Library Catalog Search using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) or keywords. For more information on using LCSH, see the notes on searching in the above section.

Helpful secondary source materials can be found by searching using the following Library of Congress Subject Headings:

 

  • Soda fountains
  • Soda fountains — United States — History
  • Carbonated beverages — Equipment and supplies
  • Carbonated beverage bottles
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Carbonated waters
  • Soda water
  • Sulfurous Water

 

Also, the following keywords may prove helpful:

  • Druggist(s)
  • Soda Jerk
  • Formulas
  • Catalog
  • Luncheonette
  • Drugstore
  • Antiques

 

Useful sources can be found by focusing on the following academic disciplines (available as a limiting option in Library Catalog Search):

 

  • Health Sciences
  • Business
  • United States History and/or History (General)
  • Chemistry
  • Art and Design
  • American Culture

 

Selected Bibliography

Primary Sources

 

A guide to wealth: Over one hundred valuable recipes for saloons, inn–keepers, grocers, druggists, merchants, and for families generally
Clements Library: Pam 1858 Ch
Also available at the Bentley Historical Library: DA 2 C487 G947

Illustrated Catalogue And Price List of the American Ice Cream Soda Water Apparatus
Clements Library: C2 1869 Do [THIS WAS ADDED FROM THE TEXT]

Carbonated beverages: the art of making, dispensing & bottling soda–water, mineral–waters, ginger–ale & sparkling–liquors
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1882 Ch

MacMahon's latest recipes and American soda water dispensers' guide. A complete compilation. A complete compilation of valuable information and formulae, for manufacturing carbonated waters... Also giving my latest formulae for fancy syrups and mixed drinks...
Clements Library: C2 1893 Ma

Saxe's new guide, or, Hints to soda water dispensers: complete and modern formulæ for the manufacture and dispensing of all carbonated drinks...
Clements Library: C2 1893 Sa

[Book of directions for setting and operating soda–water apparatus, with syrup formulas and miscellaneous information, copyright 1895 by James W. Tufts...
Clements Library: C2 1895 Tu

American soda book of receipts and suggestions: containing about 1000 choice formulas for making soda, water syrups, and fancy drinks: together with valuable hints on...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1900 Am

The dispenser's formulary, or, Soda water guide: a practical handbook for soda fountain operators consisting of over 2,000 tested formulas for soda fountain products, with complete information on fountain service, fountain standards, ice cream standards and formulas, and luncheonette service: including an appendix of manufacturers' formulas: together with descriptive information of their fountain apparatus, sundries, and supplies...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1915 Di

Secondary Sources

 

O'Neil, Darcy S. Fix the pumps. [S.l.]: Art of Drink, 2009.
Not available at Michigan; Request through ILL (to borrow from another library) or see preview in GoogleBooks

The food timeline
Website.

The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America.
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: TX 349 .O94 2004
Shapiro Undergraduate Library - Reference Shelves: TX 349 .O94 2004

The encyclopedia of food...
Hatcher Graduate Library: TX 349 .W256e

Soda water in the 19th century from the Bella C. Landauer collection at the N.Y. historical society
Clements Library: F2 1940 So

Sundae best: a history of soda fountains
Hatcher Graduate Library: TP 635 .F861 2002

Drugstore and soda fountain antiques
Taubman Health Sciences Library: NK 808 .C591 1991

What Was Available?

Background

One of the most interesting questions for many researchers of 19th–century American food and beverage retailing is simply, “what was available for purchase? What were the stores full of?”. Advances in transportation, refrigeration, and trade helped to bring to market many products which had rarely been seen for purchase before the 19th century. Products that had been available but at prohibitive prices were brought within the range of the middle and even lower classes. Additionally, advances in the manufacturing and processing industries led to a whole new category of food: packaged goods. Canned, jarred, and boxed goods began to appear on grocery shelves; with them, they brought about advances in advertising and packaging design.

Early in this period, grocery stores primarily dealt in dry goods: coffee, tea, spices, flour, and sugar were the primary food products available for purchase, as well as dried fruit and nuts. These products were bought and sold by grocers in bulk, usually out of barrels located around the grocer's counter. Fresh fruits and vegetables were available for purchase from farmers at public markets, and other products such as meats and dairy products were available from specialized shopkeepers (e.g. butchers). Beer and wine were usually made at home by individuals, or else purchased and consumed in taverns. In the second half of the century, the rise of the soda fountains allowed consumers to purchase beverages, fruits, and dessert items in a unique setting, as discussed above.

Advances in transportation and refrigeration/storage brought consumers an increasing variety of exotic items. Bananas and pineapples from the Tropics, almonds and figs from the Mediterranean, and tea from Asia were just a few of the items that became more available. Highly industrialized by the end of the 20th century, the mass cultivation and distribution of these products was just beginning in the 19th century, so prices and availability could prove highly volatile. Quality could also vary wildly as merchants attempted to make bulk purchases when prices were low, and then dole out the product over sometimes very long periods.

In addition to an increasing in variety, this century also brought the increasing dominance of the grocer as the primary supplier of foods and beverages. From his beginnings as a dry goods merchant, the grocer's business grew throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries to include more and more products. With improvements in refrigeration and the increased buying power of chain stores, grocers moved into the perishable goods business, incorporating produce and fresh meats into their shops.

Finding Materials

When looking for information related to this topic, researchers will find it most profitable to focus their search on primary source materials and reference works. While secondary source materials on this topic do exist, and can provide information, it is often easier and much more informative to find information closer to the source.

In terms of reference works, the most valuable book researchers can find (in print or one of the several digital copies) is The Encyclopedia of Food by Artemas Ward. Ward was involved in the grocery business for his entire working life, from his beginnings in the import/export business, to his publishing of the trade journal Philadelphia Grocer, to his final move into the advertising world. In 1911 he published the first edition of what was then titled The Grocer's Encyclopedia (later retitled The Encyclopedia of Food). In this work, he collected material on the cultivation, marketing, and uses of any and all foods known at the time. In one of the subtitles of the 1923 edition, the book is described as “The stories of the foods by which we live.” Just as any other encyclopedia, it goes from A to Z (“Abalone” to “Zwiebach”) and includes illustrations along with the written material. In terms of coverage, versatility, and sheer interest, this work is invaluable for any researcher interested in this topic.

Along the same lines, a number of the materials available in the Clements' collection are organized as catalogs or guidebooks, usually intended as reference works for grocers or traders. Catalogs such as Trade Circular And Price List of H.K. & F.B. Thurber & Co. not only give a picture of what was available, for what prices, but also can give insight into how consumers actually went about shopping for these items. Organized as a book, The Grocers' Manual: a Guide Book for the Information And Use of Grocers is closer in form to Ward's encyclopedia. In addition to these works, which cover available products in fairly broad detail, there are works such as Coffee From Plantation to Cup, which cover single products in much greater detail. Coffee From Plantation to Cup tells the story of the coffee trade, including chapters on growing, roasting, grinding, and brewing coffee, as well as a discussion of the ups and downs of the coffee market over the course of the 19th century.

In addition to these materials, further materials can be found by searching Library Catalog Search using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) or keywords. For more information on using LCSH, see the notes on searching in the above section.

Helpful secondary source materials can be found by searching using the following Library of Congress Subject Headings:

 

  • Grocery Shopping
  • Super Markets — United States — History
  • Grocery Trade — United States — History
  • Markets
  • Marketplaces
  • Groceries
  • Food — Dictionaries

 

Also, the following keywords may prove helpful:

  • Catalog
  • Receipt(s) (or Recipe(s))
  • Circular
  • Dictionary/Encyclopedia (sometimes included in the titles of relevant works)
  • Names of particular food/beverage items of interest

 

Useful sources can be found by focusing on the following academic disciplines (available as a limiting option in Library Catalog Search):

 

  • Business
  • United States History and/or History (General)
  • American Culture

 

Selected Bibliography

Primary Sources

 

A useful guide for grocers, distillers, hotel & tavern–keepers, and wine and spirit dealers of every denomination; being a complete directory for making and managing all kinds...
Clements Library: C2 1829 Be

A guide to wealth: Over one hundred valuable recipes for saloons, inn-keepers, grocers, druggists, merchants, and for families generally
Clements Library: C2 1858 Ch
Also available at Bentley Historical Library: DA 2 C487 G947 and online

Book of useful knowledge: a cyclopaedia of six thousand practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, and trades, including medicine, pharmacy, and...
Clements Library: C2 1859 Co

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1865 Ch

The market assistant: containing a brief description of every article of human food sold in the public markets of the cities of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Brooklyn:...
Clements Library: C2 1867 De

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1870 Ch

The artizans' guide and everybody's assistant: containing over two thousand new and valuable receipts and tables in almost every branch of business connected with civilized...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1873 Mo

Trade circular and price list of H.K. & F.B. Thurber & Co., importers & wholesale grocers, West Broadway, Reade and Hudson streets...N.Y., and 13 Rue de Conde, Bordeaux,...
Clements Library: Broadsides

The grocers' manual: a guide book for the information and use of grocers: containing a full description of all the goods sold by the trade: also rates of fare, adulterations,...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1879 Fe

Coffee from plantation to cup: a brief history of coffee production and consumption: with an appendix containing letters written during a trip to the coffee plantations of the...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1881 Th

 

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about one thousand practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1900 Ch

Grocery catalogue of Abraham and Straus
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1901 Ab

Catalogue of fine groceries: all prices quoted are subject to market changes : July 1918
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1918 Mi

The business of the household
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1918 Ta

Secondary Sources

Building a housewife's paradise: gender, politics, and American grocery stores in the twentieth century.
Hatcher Graduate Library: HF 5469.23 .U62 D48 2010

McCalla, Douglas. “Retailing in the countryside: upper Canadian general stores in the mid–nineteenth century." Business and economic history. 26, no. 2 (Winter, 1997): 393-403.
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Gwynn, David. Groceteria.com: exploring supermarket history.
This website focuses on post 1920's history, but it offers some information and other sources, as well as message boards.

Food and drink in America: a history
Hatcher Graduate Library: GT 2853 .U5 H661

The food of a younger land
Hatcher Graduate Library: TX 715 .F685 2009

Feeding America: the historic American cookbook project
Online collection from the Michigan State University Library

Food in history
Hatcher Graduate Library: GT 2850 .T17 1973
Another edition available in Buhr Shelving Facility: GT 2850 .T17

Encyclopedia of food and culture
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: GT 2850 .E531 2003

The food timeline
Website.

The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America.
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: TX 349 .O94 2004
Shapiro Undergraduate Library - Reference Shelves: TX 349 .O94 2004

The encyclopedia of food...
Hatcher Graduate Library: TX 349 .W256e

The Chicago produce market
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1918 No
Copies also in the Buhr Shelving Facility: HD 9008 .C4 N93

Beer and Wine

Background

Beer and wine have been staples for most of recorded history, and most definitely made the trip over from Europe with the colonists. In fact, it is said that a dwindling supply of beer was one of the reasons why the Pilgrims stopped when they did at Plymouth Rock. Consumption habits were quite different in 19th century America than what we experience today, however. In the earliest portion of the 18th century, if people wanted beer and wine, they often made them at home, and kept a supply to meet their family's needs. Many recipes that were followed in this practice can be found in guidebooks and cookbooks of the time.

As towns were settled and began to grow, a tavern was usually one of the first community buildings to be erected. Taverns gave townspeople a place to gather, as well a place to purchase beer and wine. Taverns catered to men, though some had separate rooms for women to gather in. They were simultaneously instrumental in both social growth and social ills. The most famous use of taverns in American history may be the meetings at the City Tavern in Philadelphia, where the Founding Fathers often met to discuss the machinations of the American Revolution. City Tavern was also the unofficial site of the First Continental Congress. It still stands, though it has been extensively restored and rebuilt. Additionally, taverns played a key role in the development of the United States Postal Service, often serving as Post Office locations before such offices were given independent homes. At times, taverns could be the site of considerable violence, as hard-drinking men attempted to defend their honor.

At first, many taverns brewed their own beers — even as local breweries began to establish themselves, they would usually (almost exclusively) retail their beers through a network of taverns that were owned by (or contracted to) the brewery. It took until 1900 for truly massive nationally distributed breweries to emerge, in the form of Pabst Brewing Company, Anheuser–Busch, and Schlitz. All three of these breweries were nearing production of one million barrels per year by 1900. Even during this time, of nationalization and consolidation of the brewing industry, we find records of a number of successful local or regional breweries, such as Stroh Brewery in Detroit and Ehert Brewing in New York City. Many of these “smaller” breweries were not much smaller than the big national brands, despite their much more limited distribution areas (at the time when Pabst was hitting the one million barrel per year mark, Ehert Brewing was still the fourth–largest brewery in the nation, despite producing keg beer exclusively, and only being distributed within the New York City area). Advances in bottling and refrigeration technology were allowing large breweries to distribute more beer further from their factories, but it wouldn't be until after the repeal of Prohibition that these national beers would actually be able to compete in any meaningful way in terms of price. Despite the advances in bottling and transportation, it still cost more to get an Anheuser–Busch “Budweiser” than it did a locally brewed, often fresher, beer.

While the American wine industry is today well–regarded the world over, it took until the 1970's to gain this recognition. In the 19th century, despite Thomas Jefferson's insistence that grapes could be grown, and wine made, just as well in the United States as anywhere in the world, most wine consumed in the United States was still imported from Europe. For those who could not afford these imported wines, there were recipes for making wine at home from various native fruits (apples, berries, tomatoes, native varieties of grapes). A number of early handbooks for grocers and inn keepers give methods and recipes for “restoring” or “fixing” wines that had been damaged in transit.

One important wine to consider when researching this period in America is Madeira. A fortified wine from the Portuguese island of Madeira, it is somewhat similar in style to the familiar Port wines. It rose to popularity during the days of naval exploration due to the Madeira Islands' status as a common port of call for ships, and because the wine's fortification with brandy (or, originally, other spirits) allowed to withstand the long sea voyages. It was the single most important wine in the Atlantic wine trade of the Colonial era, and maintained a high level of trade through the early 19th century. Madeira's supporters included the Founding Fathers, and it is said that it was used to toast the Declaration of Independence. Madeira remained extremely important in the United States even as a national wine industry was getting started.

Although some of the first European explorers of the Americas called it “Vinland” because of large number and variety of grape vines they found, it turned out that none of these grapes could be made into a wine that was suitable for palates used to European varietals. Creating a native wine industry was not only a goal of Jefferson, but also, somewhat contrarily, was an aim of many of the early advocates of temperance. These advocates saw the development of a native wine industry as a way to combat the “adulteration” of imported wines with spirits (such as the addition of brandy). As spirits were seen by many as the root of many issues stemming from alcoholism, the creation of a more pure wine industry was seen as a step towards a more temperate society.

When early winemakers attempted to grow European grape varieties in the United States, they met with some success, but then time and time again native diseases that the European varieties could not stand ravaged their vines. It took scientific advances and a renewed commitment to wine making post–Prohibition to bring American wines up to the level they at which they stand today. These advances, however, were built on the back of these early pioneers, some of whom were able to keep their vineyards going through Prohibition by focusing on table grapes or the making of sacramental and medicinal wine.

Finding Materials

When searching for information on early American beer and wine retailing, it is important to remember the discontinuous nature of brewing and wine making in the United States. Due to the Prohibition era, there are many works written on beer and wine in the United States that only really cover the post–Prohibition era, and ignore the rich history of pre–Prohibition practices.

With regard to brewing, it is much easier to find sources on pre–Prohibition brewing and retailing, as several of the breweries that were operating before Prohibition were also the major breweries post–Prohibition. Extensive and interesting histories have been written on the Pabst Brewing Company and Anheuser–Busch Company, two of the largest American brewing operations both before and after Prohibition. Additionally, helpful works can be found by searching for books on the brewing traditions and histories of larger cities in the United States. For example, the Hatcher Graduate Library holds both Cincinnati Brewing Industry, and Brewed in Detroit — both works contain extensive histories, including photographs and statistics, from at least the mid–19th century onward. For a more comprehensive look at the American brewing industry, there is Brewed in America by Stanley Baron. While this book was published in 1962, and therefore does not cover any of the micro–brew revolution of the late 20th century, it is a very useful work on pre–Prohibition brewing, beginning with the colonial breweries, and continuing through (and just a bit later than) Prohibition.

Secondary sources on pre–Prohibition wine are much more difficult to find, because of the significant change in interest and status of the American wine industry in the late 20th century. However, many good books on American wine contain at least a chapter or two at the beginning that discuss 19th–century (and earlier) wine making in the United States. Works such as American Vintage: The Rise of American Wine and Zinfandel: A History of a Grape and its Wine contain particularly helpful opening chapters, identifying a number of the major and minor winemakers and vineyards in 19th–century America, as well as their techniques.

An aspect of wine, which is sometimes overlooked, is its status as a religious sacrament. Even authors who were heavily in favor of temperance, such as Dr. Chase, would allow for wine making if that wine was to be used for religious (or medicinal) purposes. The few vineyards and winemakers that did survive the years of Prohibition in the United States took advantage of a provision in the law which allowed for the making of wine if that wine was to be used for medicinal or sacramental purposes. Without this provision, much of the knowledge gained in the 19th century about growing New World wines would have been lost. A secondary source, which is quite informative on this topic, is Religion and Wine by Robert C. Fuller.

As discussed above, the primary strength in the Longone Culinary Archive related to beer and wine in 19th–century America is the guidebooks and recipes books available in the collection. For those people who wanted to make their own beer or wine at home, these guides offered a number of recipes, all using readily available ingredients and techniques (at the time). These recipes also offered an additional source of income to the grocer or tavern owner who wanted to expand their business. Not only could these store keepers brew their own concoctions, but also the techniques available in these guides would allow them to import beverages from Europe and then “fix” those that had become “broken” on the trip. Additionally, these guides offer insight into pre–Pure–Food–Act practices; many people who imported and sold European alcoholic beverages would often try to “extend” these purchases by adding other alcohols, additional sugar, or even fruit juices. All of these techniques are discussed in guide books such as A Useful Guide for Grocers, Distillers, Hotel & Tavern–keepers, And Wine And Spirit Dealers of Every Denomination; A Guide to Wealth: Over One Hundred Valuable Recipes for Saloons, Inn–keepers, Grocers, Druggists, Merchants, And for Families Generally; and The Artizans' Guide And Everybody's Assistant.

In addition to these materials, further materials can be found by searching Library Catalog Search using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) or keywords. For more information on using LCSH, see the notes on searching in the above section.

Helpful secondary source materials can be found by searching using the following Library of Congress Subject Headings:

 

  • Brewing
  • Advertising — Brewing Industry
  • Brewing — Equipment and Supplies
  • Beer
  • Advertising — Beer
  • Beer — History
  • Beer — United States
  • Brewing Industry
  • Wine
  • Advertising — Wine
  • Wine adulteration
  • Wine industry
  • Wine — Religious aspects
  • Wine — Therapeutic Use
  • Wine and wine making — Equipment and Supplies
  • Wine and wine making — Encyclopedias
  • Wine and wine making — Dictionaries
  • Wine and wine making — California
  • Wine industry — United States
  • Wine and wine making — United States
  • Wine and wine making — Early works to 1800
  • Hotelkeepers (also, Innkeepers, Tavernkeepers, Hotel keepers, Inn keepers, and Tavern keepers)

 

Adding the following keywords to some of the above LCSHs can aid in a search as well:

  • Brewer
  • Ale [Lager, Porter, etc.]
  • Any name of a brewing region/city [Detroit, Cincinnati, St. Louis, New York, etc.]
  • Any name of a brewer [Stroh Brewing, Ehert, Anheuser–Busch, Pabst, etc.]
  • Vintner
  • Vintning
  • Any name of a particular grape (these also sometimes appear in LCSH as, for instance “Pinot Noir (Wine)” as well)
  • Taverns (or the name of any particular historical tavern, e.g. “White Horse Tavern”)

 

Selected Bibliography

Primary Sources

Virginia's discovery of silke–vvormes: with their benefit. And the implanting of mulberry trees. Also the dressing and keeping of vines, for the rich trade of making wines there. Together with the making of the saw–mill, very usefull in Virginia, for cutting of timber and clapboard, to build withall, and its conversion to other profitable uses.
Clements Library: C 1650 Wi

A memoir on the cultivation of the vine in America, and the best mode of making wine.
Clements Library: C2 1823 Ad
Also available in the Buhr Shelving Facility: SB 389 .A24

An essay on the inventions and customs of both ancients and moderns in the use of inebriating liquors : interspersed with interesting anecdotes, illustrative of the manners and...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1824 Mo

Adlum on making wine.
Clements Library: C2 1826 Ad

The American vine–dresser's guide, being a treatise on the cultivation of the vine, and the process of wine making; adapted to the soil and climate of the United States
Clements Library: C2 1826 Du

The American vine dresser's guide.
Clements Library: C2 1827 Lo

A memoir on the cultivation of the vine in America, and the best mode of making wine.
Clements Library: C2 1828 Ad

A useful guide for grocers, distillers, hotel & tavern–keepers, and wine and spirit dealers of every denomination; being a complete directory for making and managing all kinds...
Clements Library: C2 1829 Be

The American vine dresser's guide
Clements Library: C2 1829 Lo

The vine: its culture in the United States. Wine making from grapes and other fruit; useful recipes, &c.
Clements Library: C2 1855 Ph

A guide to wealth: Over one hundred valuable recipes for saloons, inn-keepers, grocers, druggists, merchants, and for families generally
Clements Library: C2 1858 Ch
Also available at Bentley Historical Library: DA 2 C487 G947 and online

Book of useful knowledge: a cyclopaedia of six thousand practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, and trades, including medicine, pharmacy, and...
Clements Library: C2 1859 Co

A treatise on the manufacture, imitation, adulteration, and reduction of foreign wines, brandies, gins, rums, etc. etc. ... Based upon the “French system.” By a practical...
Clements Library: C2 1860 St

Open air grape culture: a practical treatise on the garden and vineyard culture of the vine, and the manufacture of domestic wine. Designed for the use of amateurs and others in the northern and middle states...
Clements Library: C2 1862 Ph

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1865 Ch

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about eight hundred practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1870 Ch

The artizans' guide and everybody's assistant: containing over two thousand new and valuable receipts and tables in almost every branch of business connected with civilized...
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1873 Mo

Trade circular and price list of H.K. & F.B. Thurber & Co., importers & wholesale grocers, West Broadway, Reade and Hudson streets...N.Y., and 13 Rue de Conde, Bordeaux,...
Clements Library: Broadsides

Dr. Chase's recipes, or, information for everybody: an invaluable collection of about one thousand practical recipes for merchants, grocers, saloon–keepers, physicians...
Clements Library: C2 1900 Ch

Grocery catalogue of Abraham and Straus
Special Collections Library: Cookery 1901 Ab

Secondary Sources

General

The pure food, drink, and drug crusaders, 1879–1914
Hatcher Graduate Library: HD 9000.9 .U5 G661 1999

Food and drink in America: a history
Hatcher Graduate Libary: GT 2853 .U5 H661

Encyclopedia of food and culture
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: GT 2850 .E531 2003

The food timeline
Website.

The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America.
Hatcher Graduate Library - Reference Room: TX 349 .O94 2004
Shapiro Undergraduate Library - Reference Shelves: TX 349 .O94 2004

The encyclopedia of food...
Hatcher Graduate Library: TX 349 .W256e

Beer

Brewed in Detroit: breweries and beers since 1830
Hatcher Graduate Library: HD 9397 .U53 D48 B58 1999
Also available at Clements Library: C2 1999 Bl and the Bentley Historical Library: EC 2 D483.4 B658

The Cincinnati brewing industry; a social and economic history
Hatcher Graduate Library: HD 9397 .U53 C57 D74

Brewed in America; a history of beer and ale in the United States.
Hatcher Graduate Library: HD 9397 .U52 B26

Beer, its history and its economic value as a national beverage
Clements Library: C2 1880 Sa
Reprint also available in Hatcher Graduate Library: TP 573 .A1 S16 1972

Stack, Martin. “Local and regional breweries in America's brewing industry, 1865 to 1920” Business history review 74, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 435-463. doi:10.2307/3116434
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Wine

Oceans of wine: Madeira and the emergence of American trade and taste.
Hatcher Graduate Library: HD 9385 .P83 M334 2009
Shapiro Undergraduate Library: HD 9385 .P83 M334 2009

Thomas Jefferson on wine
Shapiro Undergraduate Library: TP 547 .J44 H36 2006

American vintage: the rise of American wine
Shapiro Undergraduate Library: TP 557 .L871 2000

Religion and wine: a cultural history of wine drinking in the United States
Hatcher Graduate Library: TP 557 .F851 1996
Shapiro Undergraduate Library: TP 557 .F851 1996

A history of wine in America from the beginnings to prohibition, Volume 1
Available electronically

Phillips, Rod. “Wine & adulteration” History today 50, no. 7 (July 2000): 31-37.
Article available online (Michigan access only)

Zinfandel: a history of a grape and its wine.
Hatcher Graduate Library: SB 389 .S941 2003

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Last modified: 07/02/2018