Copies Made by Libraries and Archives

We support private study, teaching, scholarship, and research and provide copies of material for these purposes. 

Our practices are guided by 17 U.S. Code § 107 “Fair use” and §108 “Reproduction by libraries and archives.” See our Copyright Basics guide for more information on users’ rights, including fair use and rights of libraries and archives.

Section 108 gives libraries and archives special, limited rights to make copies. For example, “the reproduction or distribution may not have any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage.”

Qualified libraries, such as this library, may make certain copies for preservation and interlibrary loan.

We are also able to make limited copies for patrons for private study, scholarship, or research. 

The Copyright Act provides different frameworks for making different types of copies. In addition, individual departments of the library have resource constraints and varying policies tailored to the nature of their services. We may not be able to provide copies in all situations.


We do not hold copyright for most of our collections, so in most cases we can neither grant nor deny permission. You are responsible for making your own legal assessment and securing any necessary permissions.

Obtaining Permissions explains how to obtain necessary permission from the copyright holder. 

Questions? Contact the Library Copyright Office at