General Information Sources

External Resources

A Beginner’s Bibliography to Digital Preservation Resources Available on the Web

Introductory Pieces:
McGovern, Nancy, “A Digital Decade: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going in Digital Preservation?”: In this article, McGovern focuses on three components of digital preservation, organization, technology and resources and gives an overview of how they have evolved in the ten year period from 1996 (when the “Preserving Digital Information” report came out) to 2007 (when this article was published).

Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information, “Preserving Digital Information”: This is one of the very first and most comprehensive reports on Digital Preservation. It is a bit old, especially in digital terms (1996), but it outlines very clearly and succinctly some of the key problems associated with digital preservation and why digital preservation is important.

Shaw, Jonathan, “Digital Preservation: An Unresolved Problem”: Article (May 2010) from Harvard Magazine, Shaw gives a general overview of digital preservation. It is interesting to compare it with the “Preserving Digital Information” report from 1996 listed above to see that a good deal of the concerns from early on are still valid.

Standards & Other Issues:
Ayre, Catherine & Muir, Adrienne, “The Right to Preserve: The Rights Issues of Digital Preservation”: Lays out some of copyright issues that may come with using some of the digital preservation strategies described in the glossary.

Caplan, Priscilla, “Understanding PREMIS”: This paper gives a great introduction to the PREMIS data dictionary for preservation metadata. For those who just want a quick review of what PREMIS is and how it is used, Section 1 provides a clear and easy to understand overview.

Cover Pages Technology Reports, “Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standards (METS)”: Pulls from a number of different sources to give a good idea of what METS is and what sort of information is included in METS.

Granger, Stewart, “Emulation as a Digital Preservation Strategy”: This article succinctly discusses two other opposing articles that argue the merits and downsides of migration and emulation.

Lavoie, Brian, “The Open Archival Information System: An Introductory Guide”: Gives the history and also an overview of what being an OAIS compliant archive entails. It also gives examples of OAIS compliant archive to illustrate the OAIS concept.

Lacinak, Chris, "A Primer on Codecs for Moving Image and Sound Archives": The purpose of this paper is to clarify what a codec is, how it is used and what that means to archives.

Other glossaries:
California Digital Library: Very complete glossary of digital preservation related terms.

Digital Preservation Coalition, “Digital Preservation Jargon Buster": Gives the meaning of some commonly used acronyms and terms in digital preservation.


Page maintained by Lance Thomas Stuchell
Last modified: 03/14/2013

Digital Preservation Glossary

The Basics:

Metadata: Latin term meaning “information about information.” In the digital realm, metadata is data that describes key information about the digital objects (image files, text files, digital audio/video) and, when appropriate, the original objects they represent. There are different kinds of ‘metadata’ including bibliographic or descriptive metadata, technical metadata, administrative metadata and structural metadata.[1]


Descriptive/Bibliographic Metadata: Information used to search and locate an object such as title, author, subjects, keywords, and publisher.


Technical Metadata: Information about aspects of the object often closely related either to its file format or the original software used to create the file. This may include things like the scanning equipment used to create a digital object and the settings used to create/modify it.



Administrative Metadata: Information needed to help manage the digital object. Often included in administrative metadata is copyright and preservation information.


Structural Metadata: Information on how the digital object is organized. This may include the page or chapter order of a book, its table of contents or indexes. Structural metadata is often used by software programs.


Digital preservation: The maintenance and management of digital objects, including both those that are born digital and were converted to digital format from analog, so that they can be accessed and used by future users.


Digital object: A representation of some piece of information in digital form. This can include many types of information, including word processing files, images, and digital audio files.


Migration: One of the strategies used in digital preservation. Migration involves changing the format of a file so it is able to be rendered with current hardware or software. This may cause changes in the ‘look or feel’ of a file.


Emulation: One of the strategies used in digital preservation. Emulation uses programs that imitate the original (obsolete or unavailable) hardware or software in order to render the original digital object.


Born Digital: A digital object that has never had an analog form. They differ from documents, movies and photographs that may have been scanned or converted to a digital format.


Digital Provenance: Information on the origin of a digital object and also on any changes that may have occurred over the course of its life cycle.


Format/Technology Obsolescence: Occurs when a piece of software or hardware is no longer in wide use or available at all. This causes it to be difficult or impossible to use any files that depend on this software or hardware.



Media deterioration/degradation: The breakdown of an analog object that holds digital objects potentially causing the objects on the media to no longer be retrievable.


Digital Repository: The organization or department responsible for the intake and maintenance of digital objects.


Dark Archive: An archive that does not grant public access and only preserves the information it contains. This can refer to a digital archive or repository as well as brick & mortar archive.


Refreshment: Copying a digital object from one media format, such as a CD, to another, such as a hard drive.


Render: “To make a Digital Object perceptible to a user.”[2] This is done through use of a software program and is often used when talking about the emulation of a digital object.


Standards Associated with Digital Preservation:

METS: Stands for Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard. A framework for describing certain pieces of essential information (metadata) about a digital object.


XML: Stands for Extensible Markup Language.One of the most common ways used to represent metadata.[3]


PREMIS: Stands for Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies. It is now in its second iteration. PREMIS metadata is contained within larger metadata schemas such as METS. PREMIS metadata structures and describes what sort of preservation has been done to a digital object. This might include taking the object into a new archive or changing the format of an object.


OAIS: OAIS is an acronym that stands for Open Archival Information System. It is an archival framework developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The OAIS framework consists of an organization of people and systems who have accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a certain group of people. It does not offer a definitive guideline for how a digital repository should act or what it should do but instead gives the digital preservation community a common language and outlook for talking about digital preservation.


Ingest: One of the functions listed in the framework for OAIS. It involves taking an object (or objects) into a digital repository.


SIP: Submission Information Package. This is what a content provider deposits into a digital repository. Included within a SIP is not only the digital object(s) but also any other information that helps to describe and understand the object(s).


AIP: Archival Information Package. This is what is stored within a digital repository. Included within an AIP is not only the digital object (s) but also any other information that helps to describe and understand the object(s). An AIP may have undergone transformation from ingest as a SIP in order to conform to the standards of the digital repository. This may include change of format or the addition of metadata.

DIP: Dissemination Information Package. This is what is given to an end user for access purposes. Included within a DIP is not only the digital object(s) but also any other information that helps to describe and understand the object(s). The creation of a DIP from an AIP may involve some transformation of the object to make it suitable for end-users.

[1] Priscilla Caplan, Metadata fundamentals for Librarians, 3.

[2] PREMIS Data Dictionary 2.0, pg 214

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Last modified: 03/14/2013

What is Digital Preservation?

Introduction to the Problem

Today, we have access to information and data that 15 years ago would have scarcely seemed possible. It seems that almost everything is being created and used in the digital realm. Documents such as your history report, the spreadsheet that shows last year’s travel budget and more were likely all generated on your computer. However, though we use computers for so many things, we often don’t give much thought about preserving what we do generate until it is too late. Most people can remember at least one horror story of lost data, whether it happened to them or to a friend; the research paper that was lost when the computer crashed or the scattered and disorganized family photos that were only saved to one hard drive – that eventually crashed! This list of lost digital data illustrates the potential fragility of digital information. There are several reasons why digital objects are so fragile.

Fragility of Digital Objects

One reason that digital information is fragile is that software programs and other technologies can be very quickly superseded by newer ones and fall out of use. This phenomenon is called technological obsolescence. Once newer technologies become accepted as the norm, it can be difficult to use any digital object that exists in an older format. Although there is currently some backwards capability available for popular programs – for example, Open Office is able to open a Microsoft Office 2003 doc – this is not necessarily the case for less widely used programs and proprietary formats from small companies. Obsolescence can also occur with the media that digital information is stored on. It is quite difficult now to find a computer with a 3 ½” floppy drive, much less one for 5 ¼” floppies. These obsolete media or formats may contain unique information that may be very difficult or impossible to recover.

Another problem associated with digital preservation is media degradation. The very media that digital information is stored on was not always made to last, and can quickly degrade. This media can include magnetic tapes, floppy discs, optical discs and more. Take, for example, a movie on DVD. More likely than not, you have experienced a crucial scene in a movie being ruined because of scratches on a DVD you were watching. This is a case of media degradation – the information that was on the DVD no longer exists because the media that it was on has itself degraded. Now imagine this has happened with not simply a commercially available CD or DVD, but a unique item that contained thousands of digitized images. Clearly there are many risks associated with media degradation, especially when you consider how much information that has been burned onto CDs and DVDs to serve as a backup.

What is Digital Preservation?

So how do we deal with the problems mentioned above? One way we can do this is through active Digital Preservation. Digital Preservation is the management and maintenance of digital objects (the files, or groups of files, that contain information in digital form) so they can be accessed and used by future users. It is important to start thinking about digital preservation early in the life cycle of a digital object because while traditional print objects may last relatively unharmed for decades untouched, this is not the case with digital objects, which have significantly shorter life spans. Therefore, by thinking about preserving the digital object early on, even when it is created, we save a great deal of time and stress later on when trying to retrieve the information an object holds before it is too late. In this sense, digital preservation, and especially early digital preservation, is important not only for personal data management but also large repositories that manage many objects. Though personal horror stories of lost data seem to be scattered and only happen from time to time, for larger repositories that contain many hundreds and thousands of digital objects, lost data can be a much bigger problem. Digital Preservation, after all, is frequently focused on long term use, which can be quite difficult to achieve considering how fragile digital objects can be. There are several strategies used to help preserve digital objects, such as emulation, migration and data redundancy.

Digital Preservation Strategies

One of the best ways to help preserve digital objects is by data redundancy. This is, simply put, making sure there are many copies of important files. If there are one or more copies of an important file available, it mitigates the disaster of the computer crashing or one disc being lost. However, though this may be helpful in the short term, it may not prove to be helpful in the long term, as file formats and media can change rapidly over a short period of time. In this case, two more digital preservation strategies can be helpful in preserving digital objects, emulation and migration.

Emulation involves using a program that imitates the original, obsolete hardware or software to render a digital object. In emulation, the original bit stream (the information that comprises the file) is saved and used. In contrast, in migration, the original bit stream is changed over to a new, current file format. Both strategies allow for the use of digital objects that may require outdated software or hardware, but in slightly different ways. When choosing a strategy, it is important to consider how the digital objects are to be used as well as the significant properties of that object. For example, is it a word document where you only need to read the information contained in it? In this case, migration which would eliminate some of the formatting might be ok. But what about a computer game where migrating data instead of emulating it would cause significant changes to the way the game was played? Although there are merits to both strategies, these types of questions are good to ask before choosing one.  A more in-depth comparison of these two strategies can be seen below.

Emulation Migration
  • Can retain ‘look and feel’ of original digital object
  • Focus is on recreating the experience, not just accessing the content
  • Preserve and use original digital object.
  • Emulator will also have to be preserved + will need to update periodically
  • Without original hardware/software, you can’t be sure you’re retaining the exact look & feel
  • Does not always result in a perfect presentation of original digital object
  • Can retain ‘look and feel’ of original digital object, depending on migration strategy as well as the format being migrated to
  • May lose original formatting, causing the object to not look quite the same as it did
  • Focus is on making the content available
  • May or may not save original digital object for backup/future migration purposes. File made in migration is a new copy.

One last way to help preserve digital objects is to make sure that as much information as possible is gathered when they are created. This information is called metadata and can include basic descriptive information about the file as well as information about the file format of the object. The metadata collected about an object helps to place items in context, as well as give specific information. This is essential for making sure that digital objects are authentic. Authenticity is that the file hasn’t been added to or modified in any way. This means that it is the digital object created by the producer and the content of the digital object was not modified once it was placed in the digital repository. This is especially important for digital files that can be easily changed in a way that may not be easily apparent as opposed to print media. In addition, metadata can also help to track what was done to preserve the object throughout its life cycle, such as migrating an object from one format to another.  This metadata can be linked to the digital object or encapsulated with the digital object itself. Encapsulating the metadata with the object, for example placing the metadata with the object in the same folder in a zip file, ensures that the information stays with the file no matter where it goes. Linking the metadata and storing the metadata somewhere else (not with the file), ensures that the information about the file can be recovered even if the object itself was lost.

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Last modified: 03/14/2013

MLibrary Digital Preservation Office

The Digital Preservation Office, staffed by Digital Preservation Librarian Lance Stuchell and Digital Preservation Specialist Scott Witmer, strives to ensure the near- and long-term use and viability of the University Library's digital collections by staying abreast of the latest standards, developments, trends, and technologies in the digital preservation community. The Office consults with digital content and collections managers to keep the Library's digital assets useful, contemporary, and secure for patrons now and in the future.

We are also available for consultations to the University of Michigan campus community. Contact us at for an appointment to discuss your needs.

Digital Preservation Laboratory

As a cumulation of several years of research and testing, the department of Preservation and Conservation established a Digital Preservation Lab (DPL) in June of 2017. The primary purpose of the DPL is to develop and implement workflows for the preservation of born-digital content received by the Library. Current priorities are focused on preserving content on obsolete media in the Special Collections Library. Plans are also in the works to take advantage of the lab’s capabilities in various other ways across the Library including:

  • Serving as the ingest point for certain types of digital content created outside of Library-managed processes including some digital collections and licensed resources. 
  • Facilitate research to identify new approaches to accessioning, preserving, and accessing digital content.
  • Act as a learning space for students and the community.  


The Digital Preservation Office has compiled general resources relating to the preservation of digital collections in both professional and home contexts. Please see:

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Last modified: 07/25/2017

Special Collections: Collections

  • Photo of cookbook cover.
    The Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive brings together a rich and diverse body of materials on the American culinary experience, shaped by the donation of titles collected over many years by Janice and Daniel Longone.  Our collecting interests are the production, promotion, preparation, presentation, consumption and appreciation of food & drink in America, plus related aspects of domestic and commercial life, such as entertaining and marketing. The bulk of the collection is from the 18th to the early 21st century, with key titles from throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Collection strengths include 19th and early 20th century cookbooks, charity cookbooks, and food-related advertising ephemera.
  • Painting of boats.

    Children's Literature

    Approximately 25,000 published volumes are complemented by several collections of archival material containing the artwork, correspondence, manuscripts, and other material created or collected by a number of notable authors and illustrators.

  • Photo of books

    English and American Literature

    In addition to an impressive array of literary first editions, notable holdings include one of the world’s best collections of editions, translations, adaptations, and spin-offs of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (first published in 1719) and Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (first published in 1726); manuscripts by Algernon Swinburne and Anthony Trollope;  hundreds of feet of material related to the University of Michigan's renowned Hopwood Awards program; the papers of authors and poets including Victor Bockris, Nicholas Delbanco, Judith Guest, Marge Piercy, Anne Waldman, and Nancy Willard; and the records of small publishers including The Alternative Press, Broadside Press, and Hanuman Books.

    Image by Brenda Clarke/Flickr (CC BY 2.0)

  • Map of Europe

    European History

    The political upheavals of 17th-century Europe are well documented in significant collections of political and other pamphlets from England, France, and the Netherlands. The Special Collections Library is home to hundreds of pre-1800 books on European military history as well as thousand of pamphlets from the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.

    Image by rosario fiore/Flickr (CC BY-ND 2.0)

  • Detail from the Galileo manuscript.

    History of Astronomy

    The collection documents the early history of the field in hundreds of pre-1800 publications including works by Copernicus, Kepler, and Euclid. A manuscript in Galileo’s own hand illustrates his discovery, sometime between 1609 and 1610, of the four moons of Jupiter.

  • Illustration by Vesalius.

    History of Medicine

    The collection contains about 8,500 medical works of scholarly significance. The material historically ranges from a collection of 52 medical magical amulets from late antiquity (Campbell Bonner Collection), to medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, early printed books, and American medical literature from the early 1800s. It includes some important named collections on early European medicine such as the Lewis Stephen Pilcher Collection, the Le Roy Crummer Collection, and the George E. Wantz Collection.

  • Photo of Islamic manuscript.

    Islamic Manuscripts

    The collection consists of 1,095 volumes (and a small number of single leaves) dating from the 8th to the 20th century CE and carrying roughly 1,795 texts chiefly in Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Turkish. The collection offers a vast range of material for philologists and historians of various disciplines, including Islamic social history, knowledge transmission and acquisition, manuscript production and ownership, and the arts of the book, and ranks among the largest and most significant such collections in North America.

  • Image from the Szyk Haggadah

    Jewish Heritage Collection

    The collection, a gift made jointly to the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies and the University Library, paints a vivid, lasting, and unique portrait of the Jewish experience. In addition to more than 1,500 books, the collection consists of approximately 1,000 works of art (drawings, paintings, engravings, woodcuts, lithographs, and other types of prints); 700 pieces of ephemera (cards, calendars, clippings, postcards, and mementos); and approximately 200 objects ranging from ritual items (menorahs, groggers, and yarmulkes) to everyday objects including toys, candles, and serving trays.

  • Image of an ornate manuscript.
    Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts

    Manuscript holdings from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance consist of over 250 volumes largely devoted to religious topics as well as single leaves, some of them of extraordinary historical relevance such as the collection of 20 parchment leaves containing works of the Coptic writer Shenoute of Atripe. Together these illustrate the art and craft of manuscript production in several parts of Europe and the Mediterranean region.

  • Photo from the Philippine History collection.

    Worcester Philippine History Collection

    The collection consists of published works, manuscript items, and photographs documenting many aspects of Philippine history, with particular emphasis on the period between 1899 and 1913, when Worcester served as a member of the United States Philippine Commission and as secretary of the interior for the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands.

  • Anti-nuke poster from Labadie collection

    Joseph A. Labadie Collection

    The collection is one of the oldest and most comprehensive collections of radical history in the United States, bringing together unique materials that document past as well as contemporary social protest movements. Collection strengths include anarchism, labor movements, civil liberties (with an emphasis on racial minorities), socialism, communism, colonialism and imperialism, American labor history through the 1930s, the Industrial Workers of the Word, the Spanish Civil War, sexual freedom, women’s liberation, gay liberation, the underground press, and student protest movements.

  • Shepard Fairey illustration of John Sayles' face.

    Film, Theater & Television

    Significant collections that fall under this broad category include plays in various languages printed before 1800, including numerous works from the Spanish Golden Age; early English plays including hundreds of editions of the works of Shakespeare, beginning with his 2nd folio (1632); over 1,000 plays performed in French “boulevard” theatres early in the 20th century; and several archival collections documenting American vaudeville and the “Little Theatre” movement of the early 20th century.

    • In the collection: Screen Arts Mavericks & Makers

      U-M is home to extensive archives and materials documenting the careers of American filmmakers known for coloring outside the lines: Robert Altman, Ira Deutchman, Alan Rudolph, Nancy Savoca, John Sayles, and Orson Welles. Together they make U-M a major destination for research on these American maverick filmmakers.

  • Photo of a train

    Transportation History

    Rich in printed, archival, photographic, and graphic materials, the Transportation History Collections include thousands of volumes on railroad history, roads and automobile travel, bicycling, bridges, ballooning, canals, and steamships.  Archival collections include the records of the Lincoln Highway Association, the Pierce-Arrow Motor Company, and the Detroit United Railway, and the papers of Charles Ellet, Jr., who designed and built several major wire-cable suspension bridges in the United States before he was killed in the Civil War. Other notable holdings include a 27-volume photographic journal documenting the building of the Panama Canal and extensive graphic material depicting pre-20th century modes of transportation.

    Image from (CC BY-SA)

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Last modified: 02/03/2016

Guide to Homeopathy Materials

Taubman Health Sciences Library

Please note that many of the materials in our Homeopathy Collection have been digitally scanned, and their full text is available on line. The search interface for the documents available on line is at the following URL:

This guide was compiled to facilitate locating Taubman Health Sciences Library’s homeopathic materials. As noted above, many items from this collection have been scanned, and are available on line. The search interface for the documents available on line is at the following URL: The print materials in the Homeopathy Collection have been stored in various places including: Buhr Shelving Facility at Green and Hoover Streets, the Serials and Microfilms department on the second floor of the south section of the Hatcher Graduate Library, the Taubman Health Sciences Library stacks or Rare Book Room, secondary storage on the second floor of Taubman Health Sciences Library, Hatcher Graduate Library, and Bentley Historical Library. The subjects highlighted by the Guide are presented as illustrations of various topics that are available in the collection and by no means constitute an exhaustive list of materials. For further information, please see the Mirlyn library catalog.

The formerly-used printed card catalog, located on the fifth level near the Technical Processing Office of Taubman Health Sciences Library, has drawers #142 and #143 dedicated to the holdings of both monographs and journals in the homeopathic field, with location annotations in many instances. Researchers should also note that delicate or older materials, when not in the Rare Book Room, may have been moved to a storage area, a change not necessarily accurately reflected in the Mirlyn Online Catalog. (Check with staff at Reference desk.)

HISTORY: The homeopathy collection at the University of Michigan originated in the holdings of the Homeopathic Medical College, first established as part of the University in Ann Arbor in 1875 and conducted concurrently with the allopathic Medical School until 1922. There was also a Homeopathic Hospital in existence locally from 1879 until 1891. For a more complete history see:


"The Homeopathic Medical College."  In: The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey, edited by Wilfred B. Shaw, vol. 2, pp. 1003-1012.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.  (Also available electronically)

The Making of the University of Michigan 1817-1992, by Howard H. Peckham, edited and updated by Margaret L. Steneck and Nicholas H. Steneck.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library, 1997.


The collection itself contains items dating from the mid-1800’s to the present day. Of particular interest is the Bradford Homeopathy Collection, which is composed of 1027 pamphlets that detail 75 years of the history and development of the field of homeopathic medicine. Along with the holdings of the former Homeopathic Library, these pamphlets constitute one of the most complete collections on the subject.

Homeopathy (homeo=similar; pathos=suffering) is a system of therapy developed in the early nineteenth century by Samuel Hahnemann, based on the “law of infinitesimal doses” or in similia similibus curantur (likes are cured by likes), which holds that a medical substance that can evoke certain symptoms in healthy people may be effective in the treatment of illnesses having symptoms closely resembling those produced by the substance.1

Click here to view the guide to Homeopathy materials in the Taubman Health Sciences Library



1. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing (5th ed.,) Baltimore. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005.



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Last modified: 04/04/2011

Staying Current Podcast Series - Web 2.0 Presentation Tools & Resources

Taubman Health Sciences Library


Web 2.0 Presentation Tools & Resources

Audio/Podcast [ZIP]
Handout [PDF]
Powerpoint [PPT]
Text of Slides

Date/Time: March 1, 2007
Title: Web 2.0 Presentation Tools & Resources
Presenter: Patricia Anderson


Text of Slides:

Slide 1: Web 2.0 Presentation Tools & Resources: Flickr, SlideShare, Zoho Show & More Patricia F. Anderson

Slide 2: Web 2.0 is Useful for ... * Folk who use multiple computers in various locations * Discovery of items similar to your selections * Sharing resources with peers, managers, students & others * Web site development & support * Building communities and discovering like- minded individuals

Slide 3: Web 2.0 Presentation Resources * When making a presentation, you want pictures, and a few words. And people. * Finding Pictures: * Google Images * Other Image Search Engines * Flickr * Building your presentation -- Zoho: Show * Sharing your presentation (& finding other presentations) --

Slide 4: Google Images

Slide 5: Yahoo Images

Slide 6: Wikimedia

Slide 7: Other Image Search Engines * A9 * Altavista: Image Search * Ask: Picture Search * Ditto * DogPile * PicSearch * MORE:

Slide 8: Flickr *Account types *Free, with limited uploads *Fee, personal accounts *Inexpensive - around $15 USD/year *No corporate accounts, yet

Slide 9: Flickr: Find Pictures *Search all of Flickr *Search your account *Search images in a group on your topic

Slide 10: Browsing Tags in Flickr * Tags are freeform and self-selected * Check a variety of spellings, phrasings, capitalization, and punctuation for the same concept * Watch for popular terms * When tagging your pictures, use a variety of spellings and terms to aid in discovery. * Browse: *

Slide 11: Flickr: Find Communities & Groups *Search for a group by keyword *Search: DENTISTRY, find:

Slide 12: Flickr: Find Communities & Groups *Search for a keyword, find a picture, find a group that collects those types of images. *Search for: GASTRIC MUCOSA, find:

Slide 13: Flickr: Build Communities & Groups * Start a group on a topic that interests you * Search for images that fit; look for a range of interesting images * Invite people to join and add their images * Invite partner(s) to help moderate group to keep it on target * Thank those who add good images, to build a reward system.

Slide 14: Flickr: Build Communities & Groups * Why? (NOTE: These are true for Web 2.0 communities in general) * Market and promote your resources * Link back to your online resources * Broaden recognition of your expertise among new groups * Broaden awareness of range of resources available * Discover new persons interested in your topic of interest

Slide 15: Flickr: Build Communities & Groups * Example: History & Art of Dentistry,

Slide 16: Flickr: Build Communities & Groups

Slide 17: Flickr: Favorites & Comments * Commenting & marking an image as a favorite (favoriting) is one way to build good feelings in the community and build relationships. This is the most popular image in the dental history pool, with 688 views in less than 3 weeks.

Slide 18: Flickr: FYIs * All new accounts temporarily restricted from being accessible via Flickr search. * Accounts may be blocked from searching if focus is not real-folk photos (negotiable). * 'Blocked' photos still accessible via groups and photostream. * Some image restrictions apply: * Copyright, * Image ownership, * Sexual, nudity, graphic violence, * Or otherwise not family-friendly.

Slide 19: Home

Slide 20: Home: Featured

Slide 21: About *Content from those who want to get their ideas out: *Not-for-profits *International schools *Consultants *Individuals

Slide 22: About 2 * Things to do with SlideShare: * Find teaching materials * Share teaching materials * Share conference slides * Review content remotely from secured computers. * NOTES about sharing: * People cannot download your presentation without asking you first. * People can ask you.

Slide 23: Things to Do

Slide 24: Tags

Slide 25: Tag Browse

Slide 26: Searching * No advanced search * Sloppy search * This reflects relatively new product and growing collection -- they want you to find something, so make the search imprecise. * Community still "young" (in Web 2.0 terms), so few comments / added tags * Pluses: Searches full text of presentation slides, and breaks out full text in display

Slide 27: My SlideSpace

Slide 28: My SlideSpace *Presentations *Favorites *Tags *Contacts *Comments

Slide 29: Zoho Show: Home

Slide 30: Zoho Show: What You Can Do

Slide 31: Zoho Show: Ways to Use It * Backup your presentation, in case * Your computer fries at a conference * When you have to use someone else's computer * You are working from a public computer without your preferred presentation software * Last minute edits / updates to previously loaded presentation * Pseudo Webcast presentations -- conference call + online slideshow you control * Interviewing job candidates remotely * Guest speakers & consulting presentations

Slide 32: Zoho Show: New Presentation

Slide 33: Zoho Show: Editing Interface

Slide 34: Zoho Show: Adding a New Slide

Slide 35: Zoho Show: Images & Flickr

Slide 36: Zoho Show: Images & Flickr *Success!

Slide 37: Zoho Show: Actions *Import PPT *Export PPT

Slide 38: Other Free Zoho Online Tools *Zoho Writer (word processing) *Zoho Sheet (spreadsheet) *Zoho Polls (surveys) *Zoho Creator (online databases) *Zoho Wiki *More ... at

Slide 39: Creating Accounts * Each account per tool (Flickr, Zoho, Slideshare) must usually be associated with a unique e-mail address. * If creating an account to be shared across an office, consider creating an e-mail list to serve as the contact e-mail address.

Slide 40: More: Copyright & Licensing * Creative Commons license options for both SlideShare and Flickr * Is there an institutional policy? * What does your boss think? * Most conservative license is "All Rights Reserved." * Next most conservative, but more open, is Creative Commons, non-commercial use only, no derivatives.

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Last modified: 06/07/2010

Staying Current Podcast Series: Refworks

Using RefWorks to Manage Your Literature

Audio/Podcast [ZIP]
Handout [PDF]
Powerpoint [PPT]
Text of Slides

Date/Time: April 10, 2007
Title: Using RefWorks to Manage Your Literature
Presenter: Pat Redman


Text of Slides:

  1. Using To Manage Your Literature Pat Redman Taubman Health Sciences Library © 2007 Regents of the University of Michigan. All rights reserved.
  2. What is RefWorks? Database software ….provided by the Library ….accessible via the web
  3. Why use RefWorks? • To organize your references….like an electronic filing cabinet • To import your database search results • To format your papers and bibliographies according to journal/style specifications • To share references for team or department projects
  4. Access on campus:
  5. RefWorks Tutorial & FAQ
  6. Tutorial Basics
  7. Highlighted Tutorials
  8. OVID Medline Search
  9. Direct Export
  10. Export Results to RefWorks
  11. Import from OVID
  12. Last Imported Folder
  13. Descriptors View
  14. Citation View
  15. Recapping • Direct Export is easy but not available in all databases. It is in UM-Medsearch, PsycInfo and Dissertation Abstracts. • For other databases such as PubMed and Web of Knowledge, save your results as a text file and use File-Import in RefWorks.
  16. Now in PubMed
  17. File - Save As
  18. Import Filters
  19. Manually Adding a Reference
  20. Use the Folders menu to create folders and organize your references
  21. Create New Folders
  22. Use the Search menu to Lookup
  23. So far we’ve: • Built our RefWorks library with references from UM-Medsearch and PubMed • Learned how to add a reference manually • Used folders to organize our references • Looked at the Search menu Now let’s format a paper!
  24. Choose Cite View
  25. Open Word File
  26. Place Cursor, Click Cite, Selection Citation
  27. Drag & Drop Drag and drop Citation into Word document
  28. Clear between cites
  29. Save & close your paper
  30. Creating a bibliography
  31. RefWorks renames file
  32. Important! • Autism.doc is not formatted by RefWorks • Final-Autism.doc is formatted by RefWorks If you want to make changes, make them to Autism.doc and then reformat in RefWorks again.
  33. Need help? • Online: remember the Tutorial & FAQ • Call or email us: – 764-1210 – • Contact me directly: – Pat Redman
Page maintained by Mark A Chaffee
Last modified: 08/02/2012

Staying Current Podcast Series - Social Bookmarking and Delicious

Taubman Health Sciences Libraries


Social Bookmarking &

Audio/Podcast [ZIP]
Handout [PDF]
Powerpoint [PPT]
Text of Slides

Date/Time: February 22, 2007
Title: Social Bookmarking &
Presenter: Patricia Anderson


Text of Slides:

  1. Social Bookmarking & A Personal and Professional Productivity Tool Patricia F. Anderson <> Taubman Health Sciences Library © 2007 Regents of the University of Michigan. University of Michigan All rights reserved. February 22, 2007
  3. Useful for … • Folk who use multiple computers in various locations • Discovery of items similar to your selections • Collecting search strategies & information for bibliographies • Course-integrated instruction • Sharing resources with peers, managers, students & others • Web site development
  4. Content in • Database built by general public, contains what others liked • Focused: better for popular topics and items • Currently tends to focus on items of interest to technophiles and young adults, but growing and diversifying • What you add changes the profile
  5. Like … but for Scientists • Connotea • CiteULike
  6. Connotea
  7. Connotea
  8. CiteULike
  9. Searching in • Three options
  10. Searching in • Example:
  11. Searching in • Let’s try it. •
  12. Browsing Tags in • Tags are freeform and self-selected • Check a variety of spellings, phrasings, capitalization, and punctuation for the same concept • Avian flu = avian.flu = avian_flu = avian-flu = avianflu = Avian.flu = Avian.Flu = “avian flu” = … • Avian influenza • Bird flu = birdflu • Bird influenza • Pandemic influenza • Pandemic flu • H5N1 / h5n1 • MORE: tamiflu, pandemic, flu, epidemic, influenza • Watch for popular terms
  13. Browsing Tags in
  14. Browsing Tags in
  15. Browsing Tags in
  16. Browsing Tags in • DEMO •
  17. Getting Started • Create your account • Upload your bookmarks • Export bookmarks (“hotsync”) • Save links • Tag • Annotate • Settings
  18. Create Your Account
  19. Create Your Account • Each account must be associated with a unique e-mail address (I think). • If creating an account to be shared across an office, consider creating an e-mail list to serve as the contact e-mail address.
  20. Create Your Account • Consider the purpose of the account when naming it; segregate home / personal and office collections. • If you will be collecting information that is private consider choosing a username that will not be associated with you personally.
  21. Create Your Account • Let’s do it! • Choose a fictional “name”? • If you have a non-UM e-mail address, consider using that as the contact. • Use a different password than your Kerberos password. • You will need to open your e-mail in another window to activate the account.
  22. Upload Bookmarks • Easy: Select file, accept default options • Public or Private - your choice
  23. Export Bookmarks • Like hotsyncing your browser
  24. How to Save a Link • With the post button • With the browser buttons • Required elements: title / URL • Optional standard elements: tags / annotations • Extra optional element: Privacy checkbox
  25. How to Save a Link • With the post button (eg. PDFs)
  26. How to Save a Link • With the post button (eg. PDFs)
  27. How to Save a Link • With the browser buttons • TIP: Use the tab to fill in a tag with the highlighted tag, or click on the choice to save typing.
  28. How to Save a Link • Extra optional element: Privacy checkbox
  29. How to Tag • Tagging rules • Separate tags with a space • Join words with punctuation (lower-case preferred) (some simply delete spaces between words) • Use capitalization appropriately to improved readability or to distinguish between tags and bundles
  30. How to Annotate • Annotations: Personal vs. Communal • Citations • Quotations • Date Viewed • Size limits on what can be included
  31. Tag & Annotate Examples
  32. Tag & Annotate Examples
  33. Tag & Annotate Examples
  34. Editing Saved Links
  35. Personalized Settings • Privacy options • Tag Bundles • Networking
  36. Personalized Settings: Privacy • Private links (checkbox) • Private network (block someone who sends you inappropriate links)
  37. Personalized Settings: Tag Bundles • SAVE!
  38. Who Saved What?
  39. Personalized Settings: Networks
  40. Using Networks for Discovery
  41. Things To Do With • Working with students • in class environments (Google jockeys) • Working with peers and administrators • Have an assistant gather information for you
  42. vs. Ctools for URL Collections • • Available to public (+/-) • Annotations and tags provide richer information than the Ctools Dropbox • Easier to share/add/delete links than Ctools • Students develop skills and collections for life after Michigan • Feeds the public good • Ctools • Can secure access to a select group (+/-) • Integrates with other course materials • UM Institutional and community standard
  43. Collect Links for Building Websites
  44. Collect Information to Answer a Question • Remember privacy issues: Does your collection reveal identity?
  45. Collect Information and Strategies for Your Manager
  46. Have an Assistant Collect Links for You
  47. Create Information and Teaching Guides • Library guides …
  48. Linking to Complex Concepts • Use the plus sign (+) to combine concepts
  49. Example Library Guide • Notice the annotations?
  50. Saving Search Strategies • Saving search strategies for a class (Google Jockey concept) …
  51. Tagging Tips • Too few terms can make retrieval difficult • Too many terms can also make retrieval difficult
  52. Tagging Tips • Include both broad and narrow terms • Design terms with repeated concepts to go from broad to narrow, general to specific.
  53. Tagging Tips • Use punctuation for spaces (lower case) • Think of unique concepts as two term combinations, rather than a new term. • Standardization helps, but requires maintenance.
  54. Tagging Tips • Tagging shortcuts: examples • Items for a particular audience: • 4doctors, 4kids, 4patients, etc • Items from frequently read journals or authors: • in:jada, in:nyt, in:chronicle, in:agd • Items for people in your delicious network: • for:dentlib, for:tmjchat
  55. Saving Items Tagged for You
  56. Saving Items Tagged for You
  57. Tag Clouds
  58. Tag Bundles
  59. Questions? • Contact: Patricia Anderson at
Page maintained by Mark A Chaffee
Last modified: 05/11/2010


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