International Studies

U.S. Military Advisory Effort in Vietnam: 1950-1964

Alternative Titles
Military Assistance Advisory Group, Vietnam,
Description

The United States decision to provide military assistance to France and the Associated States of Indochina was reached informally in February/March 1950, funded by the President on May 1, 1950, and was announced on May 8, 1950. The decision was taken in spite of the U.S. desire to avoid direct involvement in a colonial war, and in spite of a sensing that France's political-military situation in Indochina was deteriorating. This collection consists of unique records of U.S. agencies established to intervene in Vietnam-the country U.S. foreign policy deemed a lynchpin in the free world's fight against communism. The Subject Files from the Office of the Director, U.S. Operations Missions, document the myriad concerns and rationales that went into the control and direction of U.S. economic and technical assistance programs, as well as the coordination of mutual security activities, with respect to Vietnam.

Type
Database
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45403
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Nicaragua: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Description

The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of President John F. Kennedy. Reports on commerce abound, including memoranda from the embassy in Managua on total sugar production estimates that may enter the United States. Memoranda on social welfare include: a survey of government-sponsored social welfare organizations as well as details on the National Social Assistance Lottery and the National Committee for the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign. From the embassy at San José (Costa Rica) various items are included, such as: "Central America Common Market Meetings Completed"; "Pure Oil Company Not 'In' Oil Refinery Deal"; and "Tripartite Treaty of Commerce" [between Costa Rica, Panama, and Nicaragua] "Goes into Effect" (August 1962).

Type
Database
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45399
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Ecuador: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Description

The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of John F. Kennedy. Included here are plans by the U.S. Air Force, under an existing understanding between Quito and Washington, to commence photograph mapping operations in Central and Western Ecuador. Documents on commercial affairs include a report on the robust market of U.S. ophthalmic goods in Ecuador with continuing competition expected "from French, German, Swiss, and Japanese products"; and a proposed visit by U.S. fisheries consultants (June 1962).

Type
Database
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45397
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Colombia: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Description

The documents in this collection offer a snapshot of Colombia at the height of the Cold War. Numerous records track the impact of the Castro revolution in Cuba, for example: "Colombia Tourist Agent Visits Embassy Regarding Prospective Travel of Colombians on Planned USSR Flights Between Havana and Moscow"; and naval equipment on loan: "Colombian Navy would like to lease ... from the United States Navy, under similar terms as those contained in the lease for the Floating Dry Dock." On the economy: National Coffee Federation tabulations (September 1960); and "it was a sellers' market during December for anyone holding dollars for sale as the Colombian peso continued to fall in relation to the dollar. The free market has advanced nervousness since October" (15 January 1963).

Type
Database
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45395
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Bolivia: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Description

The backstory to this archive revolves around the rise of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), which emerged as a broadly based party. Under President Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001), the MNR "introduced universal adult suffrage, carried out a sweeping land reform, promoted rural education, and nationalized the country's largest tin mines. Twelve years of tumultuous rule left the MNR divided." In 1964, a military junta overthrew President Paz Estenssoro at the outset of his third term. Documents in this collection offer insight into the U.S. state department during the Cold War. Examples include analysis of labor union leadership and its relationship to Communists "united in opposition" and attempting to impose a "Fascist regime in Bolivia." Periodicals such as Prescenia and El Diario are characterized as "organs at service of Communists" (December 1960). The embassy notes how El Pueblo, the Communist newspaper in La Paz, reports a Pravda correspondent expressing "great interest in 'promoting' relations with USSR" (March 1962).

Type
Database
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45393
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Argentina: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Description

This archive focuses on Argentina after the era of Juan Perón. In this period civilian administrations traded power, trying, with limited success, to deal with diminished economic growth and continued social and labor demands. The documents offer insight into various aspects of the Argentine economy. Examples include: the minister of public works discussing a program in "highways, railroads, and water transport" (June 1960); a report on the newly appointed undersecretary of mines requesting that the embassy's economic counselor have the U.S. government "examine the possibilities of procurement of tungsten" (June 1961); and a resolution by the National Cinematographic Institute requiring that all films exhibited in motion picture theaters feature Spanish subtitles "accompanied by written proof that the dialogue has been has been translated and subtitled in Argentina" (April 1962).

Type
Database
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45391
Access
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Turkey: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1802-1949

Description

Modern Turkey, from its late Ottoman roots in the early 19th-century to its emergence as a republic following the First World War, is traced here. Correspondences from U.S. Consults in Alexandretta, Ezerum, Harput, Siva, and Smyrna are included. This archive is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Date Range: 1802-1949
Content: 232,429 images
Source Library:U.S. National Archives
 

Type
Database
Text Collection
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45389
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Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Trans-Jordan: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1836-1944

Description

This timely collection covers U.S. perspectives on Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Trans-Jordan, from Ottoman rule to the era of British and French mandates following the First World War. The archive is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Date Range: 1836-1944
Content: 41,619 images
U.S. National Archives
Type
Database
Text Collection
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45387
Access
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Iran (Persia): Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1883-1959

Description

The documents in this collection on Iran are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Date Range: 1883-1959
Content: 91,207 images
Source Library:U.S. National Archives

Iran’s geopolitical importance at the end of the nineteenth century made it a central focus in the "great game" of diplomatic rivalry between the major imperial powers, Great Britain and Russia. Popular protest against the Qajar government, which had begun in 1890 under the leadership of the Shiite hierarchy in opposition to a British tobacco concession, was revived in 1905 and forced the shah to order the election of a Majlis (parliament) and grant Iran a constitution in 1906. There followed five years of political struggle, known as the Constitutional Revolution, 1905-1911, between the new shah, supported by Russia, and the Majlis. The Constitutional Revolution aimed without success at the elimination of foreign interests. The attempts of constitutional governments to implement reforms were frustrated and central authority collapsed.

After a coup in 1921, Reza Khan, an officer of the Cossack brigade, became commander-in-chief of the armed forces and quickly consolidated his power. In 1925, the Majlis deposed the last Qajar shah and elevated Reza Khan to the throne. He established a centralized civil service and a national educational system. In this archive, for example, we find a 1931 report from the U.S. legation: “I have the honor to report that Reza Shah Pahlevi, though himself uneducated, is constantly showing new evidence of his confidence in education as the solution of the problems which have harassed Persia for centuries.” Reza Shah Pahlevi established the University of Tehran in 1934, and in 1935, as part of the country’s education policy, the university admitted women. In 1941, however, Reza Shah was forced by the Allies to abdicate in favor of his son, who reigned until the Revolution of 1979.

By tracing events in the nineteenth century this archive places more recent events, such as the coup that toppled the Mossadegh government in 1953, in vital historical context. It will interest scholars in need of documents from the perspective of the U.S. State Department.

Type
Database
Text Collection
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45385
Access
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Egypt: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1853-1962

Description

This archive covers Egypt from the years before the opening of the Suez Canal through the era of British domination, Egyptian nationalism, and independence. The documents are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Date Range: 1853-1962
Content: 121,013 images
Source Library:U.S. National Archives
 

Type
Database
Text Collection
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/45383
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects
Questions about this resource? Contact Ask a Librarian

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