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Math was second to writing as the most useful skill one could learn in school. Since the economy was mainly agricultural, people needed to be able to weigh and measure their crop yields, and calculate how much money they were worth. The Nile River was principal source of water, and in order to irrigate fields properly, it was helpful to have some grasp on geometry and engineering. Not everyone was schooled in math, though. For a typical farmer, it was enough to be able to hire a specialist when he needed one. Of course, this meant that he had to trust the accuracy and honesty of the person he hired! 

Multiplication Tables P.Mich.inv. 29974 

Euclid's
Elements (Geometry) P.Mich.inv. 925 
