General Information Sources

Biography in Context

Alternative Titles
Gale Biography in Context (formerly Biography Resource Center)
Gale BIC, GBIC, BRC
Description

Contains more than 600,000 biographies on more than 528,000 people from around the world and throughout history.  Combines more than 135 frequently consulted Gale biographical sources with more than 325 full-text periodicals and journals, more than 27,000 portraits, and thousands of Recent News briefs on high-interest individuals.

Type
Encyclopedia
Coverage
Current edition. Updated continuously.
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/8207
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects

American National Biography

Alternative Titles
ANB
Description
Profiles of more than 18,000 men and women from all eras and walks of American life who have influenced and shaped American history and culture. Includes thousands of illustrations, hyperlinked cross-references, and links to select web sites.
Type
Encyclopedia
Coverage
First edition of 1999, updated quarterly.
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/8211
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects

Humanities Abstracts (with Full Text)

Alternative Titles
Humanities Full Text
Humanities Index
Wilson Humanities Index
Description

Indexes and abstracts articles from almost 700 humanities publications. Covers periodicals in archaeology, art, classics, film, folklore, journalism, linguistics, music, performing arts, philosophy, religion, world history, and world literature. Abstracts feature articles, book reviews, interviews, obituaries, bibliographies, original works of fiction (including dramas and poems), and reviews of plays and television and radio programs. Excludes editorials, letters to the editor, news, ephemeral announcements, cartoons, and advertising. Each record contains a bibliographic citation for an article, book review, or other item in a journal. Full text is included for many articles.

Type
Article Index
Coverage
1984 - (index & abstracts); 1994 - (selected full text)
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/8195
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects

ARTbibliographies Modern

Alternative Titles
ABM
Art Bibliographies Modern
Description

Abstracts of articles, books, essays, exhibition catalogs & reviews, and dissertations covering artists & movements from the late 19th century to all aspects of modern & contemporary art, including photography from its invention in 1839 to the present.

Type
Article Index
Coverage
late 1960s -
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/8191
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects

Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary

Alternative Titles
Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary (GVRL)
Gale Virtual Reference Library
Description

Provides definitions of a wide variety of acronyms, initialisms, abbreviations and similar contractions, translating them into their full names or meanings. Terms from subject areas such as associations, education, the Internet, medicine and others are included. 4 v.

Type
Dictionary
E-Book(s)
Coverage
43rd edition 2010
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/8165
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects

International Index to Black Periodicals Full Text

Alternative Titles
International Index to Black Periodicals Full Text (Chadwyck-Healey)
IIBP
Description
Provides indexing for 127 currently published scholarly and popular periodicals in Black studies, with links to full text from 40 of them. Also provides retrospective indexing for 45 older periodicals.
Type
Article Index
Coverage
1902 - 1990, 1998 - Varies by title.
Stable URL
http://www.lib.umich.edu/database/link/8163
Access
Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)Authorized UM users (+ guests in UM Libraries)
Subjects

Internal Resources

Resources created by the Digital Preservation Office

"Preserving Personal Digital Files" by Sarah Wingo. This document gives an overview of general digital preservation applied to your personal files; ways to preserve specific files such as text, images, audio, video, email, and websites; and methods of backing up your digital life.
 
"How To Preserve Your Own Digital Materials" and "Resources for Information About Preserving Your Digital Materials". This document will guide you in keeping your digital materials safe, so that you and your family can look at them in the future. It also provides links to a number of resources that will help you learn more about preserving your personal digital materials, digitizing your LP records or photographs, or backing up your files on the Internet.

"A Quick Guide to Digital Video Files". This short document is intended to provide information on the basics of digital video, such as resolution, bit rate, file formats, and metadata.

"Best Practices for Producing Quality Digital Audio Files" and "Best Practices for Producing Quality Digital Video Files." These documents outline recommendations for creating high-quality digital audio and video files that conform to contemporary preservation standards. Although intended for users depositing materials into Deep Blue, UM's institutional repository, the information is useful for anyone working with digital audio or video.

Page maintained by Lance Stuchell
Last modified: 05/19/2014

External Resources

A Beginner’s Bibliography to Digital Preservation Resources Available on the Web

Introductory Pieces:
McGovern, Nancy, “A Digital Decade: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going in Digital Preservation?”: In this article, McGovern focuses on three components of digital preservation, organization, technology and resources and gives an overview of how they have evolved in the ten year period from 1996 (when the “Preserving Digital Information” report came out) to 2007 (when this article was published).
http://worldcat.org/arcviewer/1/OCC/2007/08/08/0000070511/viewer/file1981.html#article3

Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information, “Preserving Digital Information”: This is one of the very first and most comprehensive reports on Digital Preservation. It is a bit old, especially in digital terms (1996), but it outlines very clearly and succinctly some of the key problems associated with digital preservation and why digital preservation is important.
http://worldcat.org/arcviewer/1/OCC/2007/08/08/0000070511/viewer/file2431.pdf

Shaw, Jonathan, “Digital Preservation: An Unresolved Problem”: Article (May 2010) from Harvard Magazine, Shaw gives a general overview of digital preservation. It is interesting to compare it with the “Preserving Digital Information” report from 1996 listed above to see that a good deal of the concerns from early on are still valid.
http://harvardmagazine.com/2010/05/digital-preservation-an-unsolved-problem

Standards & Other Issues:
Ayre, Catherine & Muir, Adrienne, “The Right to Preserve: The Rights Issues of Digital Preservation”: Lays out some of copyright issues that may come with using some of the digital preservation strategies described in the glossary.
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march04/ayre/03ayre.html

Caplan, Priscilla, “Understanding PREMIS”: This paper gives a great introduction to the PREMIS data dictionary for preservation metadata. For those who just want a quick review of what PREMIS is and how it is used, Section 1 provides a clear and easy to understand overview.
http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/understanding-premis.pdf

Cover Pages Technology Reports, “Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standards (METS)”: Pulls from a number of different sources to give a good idea of what METS is and what sort of information is included in METS.
http://xml.coverpages.org/mets.html

Granger, Stewart, “Emulation as a Digital Preservation Strategy”: This article succinctly discusses two other opposing articles that argue the merits and downsides of migration and emulation.
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october00/granger/10granger.html

Lavoie, Brian, “The Open Archival Information System: An Introductory Guide”: Gives the history and also an overview of what being an OAIS compliant archive entails. It also gives examples of OAIS compliant archive to illustrate the OAIS concept.
http://www.dpconline.org/component/docman/doc_download/347-introduction-to-oais-introduction-to-oais

Lacinak, Chris, "A Primer on Codecs for Moving Image and Sound Archives": The purpose of this paper is to clarify what a codec is, how it is used and what that means to archives.
http://www.avpreserve.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/AVPS_Codec_Primer.pdf

Other glossaries:
California Digital Library: Very complete glossary of digital preservation related terms.
http://www.cdlib.org/gateways/technology/glossary.html

Digital Preservation Coalition, “Digital Preservation Jargon Buster": Gives the meaning of some commonly used acronyms and terms in digital preservation.
http://www.dpconline.org/component/docman/doc_download/379-dpc-jargon-buster-july-2009

 

Page maintained by Lance Stuchell
Last modified: 03/14/2013

Digital Preservation Glossary

The Basics:

Metadata: Latin term meaning “information about information.” In the digital realm, metadata is data that describes key information about the digital objects (image files, text files, digital audio/video) and, when appropriate, the original objects they represent. There are different kinds of ‘metadata’ including bibliographic or descriptive metadata, technical metadata, administrative metadata and structural metadata.[1]

 

Descriptive/Bibliographic Metadata: Information used to search and locate an object such as title, author, subjects, keywords, and publisher.

 

Technical Metadata: Information about aspects of the object often closely related either to its file format or the original software used to create the file. This may include things like the scanning equipment used to create a digital object and the settings used to create/modify it.

 

 

Administrative Metadata: Information needed to help manage the digital object. Often included in administrative metadata is copyright and preservation information.

 

Structural Metadata: Information on how the digital object is organized. This may include the page or chapter order of a book, its table of contents or indexes. Structural metadata is often used by software programs.

 

Digital preservation: The maintenance and management of digital objects, including both those that are born digital and were converted to digital format from analog, so that they can be accessed and used by future users.

 

Digital object: A representation of some piece of information in digital form. This can include many types of information, including word processing files, images, and digital audio files.

 

Migration: One of the strategies used in digital preservation. Migration involves changing the format of a file so it is able to be rendered with current hardware or software. This may cause changes in the ‘look or feel’ of a file.

 

Emulation: One of the strategies used in digital preservation. Emulation uses programs that imitate the original (obsolete or unavailable) hardware or software in order to render the original digital object.

 

Born Digital: A digital object that has never had an analog form. They differ from documents, movies and photographs that may have been scanned or converted to a digital format.

 

Digital Provenance: Information on the origin of a digital object and also on any changes that may have occurred over the course of its life cycle.

 

Format/Technology Obsolescence: Occurs when a piece of software or hardware is no longer in wide use or available at all. This causes it to be difficult or impossible to use any files that depend on this software or hardware.

 

 

Media deterioration/degradation: The breakdown of an analog object that holds digital objects potentially causing the objects on the media to no longer be retrievable.

 

Digital Repository: The organization or department responsible for the intake and maintenance of digital objects.

 

Dark Archive: An archive that does not grant public access and only preserves the information it contains. This can refer to a digital archive or repository as well as brick & mortar archive.

 

Refreshment: Copying a digital object from one media format, such as a CD, to another, such as a hard drive.

 

Render: “To make a Digital Object perceptible to a user.”[2] This is done through use of a software program and is often used when talking about the emulation of a digital object.

 

Standards Associated with Digital Preservation:

METS: Stands for Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard. A framework for describing certain pieces of essential information (metadata) about a digital object.

 

XML: Stands for Extensible Markup Language.One of the most common ways used to represent metadata.[3]

 

PREMIS: Stands for Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies. It is now in its second iteration. PREMIS metadata is contained within larger metadata schemas such as METS. PREMIS metadata structures and describes what sort of preservation has been done to a digital object. This might include taking the object into a new archive or changing the format of an object.

 

OAIS: OAIS is an acronym that stands for Open Archival Information System. It is an archival framework developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The OAIS framework consists of an organization of people and systems who have accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a certain group of people. It does not offer a definitive guideline for how a digital repository should act or what it should do but instead gives the digital preservation community a common language and outlook for talking about digital preservation.

 

Ingest: One of the functions listed in the framework for OAIS. It involves taking an object (or objects) into a digital repository.

 

SIP: Submission Information Package. This is what a content provider deposits into a digital repository. Included within a SIP is not only the digital object(s) but also any other information that helps to describe and understand the object(s).

 

AIP: Archival Information Package. This is what is stored within a digital repository. Included within an AIP is not only the digital object (s) but also any other information that helps to describe and understand the object(s). An AIP may have undergone transformation from ingest as a SIP in order to conform to the standards of the digital repository. This may include change of format or the addition of metadata.

DIP: Dissemination Information Package. This is what is given to an end user for access purposes. Included within a DIP is not only the digital object(s) but also any other information that helps to describe and understand the object(s). The creation of a DIP from an AIP may involve some transformation of the object to make it suitable for end-users.




[1] Priscilla Caplan, Metadata fundamentals for Librarians, 3. http://books.google.com/books?id=yt2863FismcC&printsec=frontcover&cd=1&source=gbs_ViewAPI#v=onepage&q&f=false

[2] PREMIS Data Dictionary 2.0, pg 214

Page maintained by Lance Stuchell
Last modified: 03/14/2013

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