Types of Plagiarism

Plagiarism Activities 1

Intentional Unintentional
       
    Non-Attribution
Fraud
Intentional "borrowing, purchasing, or otherwise obtaining work composed by someone else and submitted"2 under another's name.
Patchwriting
Not always thought of as academic dishonesty, patchwriting is "half-copy[ing] the author's sentences . . .by plugging your synonyms into the author's sentence structure."3 It can occur whether or not the original author is cited.
Failure to Cite
Summarizing, paraphrasing or using author's exact language without properly citing the source using footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical notes.
Failure to Quote
Using original author's exact language without using quotation marks or block quotation. Often results from students' inexperience with the material or discourse community
1 Model taken from Rebecca Moore Howard, "Plagiarism, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty," College English 57 (Nov. 1995), 788-806.
2 Ibid., 799.
3 Diana Hacker, The Bedford Handbook, (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998), 572.
Page maintained by Doreen Bradley
Last modified: 05/17/2011