Plagiarism Activities 1
Intentional "borrowing, purchasing, or otherwise obtaining work composed by someone else and submitted"2 under another's name.
Not always thought of as academic dishonesty, patchwriting is "half-copy[ing] the author's sentences . . .by plugging your synonyms into the author's sentence structure."3 It can occur whether or not the original author is cited.
|Failure to Cite
Summarizing, paraphrasing or using author's exact language without properly citing the source using footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical notes.
|Failure to Quote
Using original author's exact language without using quotation marks or block quotation. Often results from students' inexperience with the material or discourse community
|1 Model taken from Rebecca Moore Howard, "Plagiarism, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty," College English 57 (Nov. 1995), 788-806.
2 Ibid., 799.
3 Diana Hacker, The Bedford Handbook, (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998), 572.