At the crux of reproductive justice is the right of women to decide if and when to have children. As such, reproductive justice encompasses issues, practices, and policies related to reproduction, contraception, sterilization, sexual identity and family creation, as well as meanings and experiences of motherhood. In the 1870s the Comstock Laws ushered in a new era in which the state sought to control women’s access to birth control methods. In response, women struggled legally, socially, and culturally to control their own reproductive bodies. Over time, these struggles have been deeply stratified depending on a woman's position and identity in terms of race, ethnicity, sexuality, socio-economic status, and disability.