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What did they know about the world?

Unfortunately, we have relatively little evidence about scientific education in ancient Egypt. We do know that Alexandria was the home of some of the ancient world's most famous scientists, such as Eratosthenes, who calculated the circumference of the earth with considerable accuracy. It seems to be the case that science, as we know it, was not a regular subject in primary education, but was reserved for older students living in the big cities and working with established scholars.
Science was a little different in those days, anyway. Astronomy and astrology were popular subjects of research, but were intimately linked with mathematics and philosophy. Physics, which had practical applications in agriculture and warfare, was also important. Geographers such as Strabo and biologists such as Pliny wrote exhaustive works about the environment, but such subjects weren't, as far as we can tell, part of school curricula.
Other fields of research, like medicine, were often carried out in religious, rather than academic, contexts.

Astrological Compilation
P.Mich.inv. 1