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Browse results for: Social Sciences in Databases
Highly Recommended Databases
1 - 7 of 7
- Communication & Mass Media Complete
Coverage of more than 500 full-text journals in the communication and mass media fields.
- ERIC [ProQuest]
U.S. Dept. of Education database providing extensive access to educational-related literature.
A full text database of 140 international publications devoted to women's and gender issues.
Premier resource for surveying the literature of psychology and adjunct fields. Covers 1887-present. Produced by the APA.
- Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science)
A multidisciplinary database with searchable author abstracts covering over 1700 journals in the social sciences.
- Sociological Abstracts
Provides access to the international literature in sociology and related disciplines. Covers 1800+ journals, back to 1952.
- Urban Studies Abstracts
Urban Studies Abstracts includes bibliographic records covering essential areas related to urban studies, including urban affairs, ...
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- 21st Century Education
Articles on current issues relating to students, teachers, staff and curriculum in the United States.Thomas L. Good, editor.
- A-V Online
A database of distribution sources for educational media in video, film, audio, and other formats.
- ABI/INFORM Global
Indexes 3,000+ business-related periodicals (with full text for 2,000+), including Wall Street Journal.
- Abstracts in Social Gerontology
Provides bibliographic records covering aging, elder abuse, society and the elderly, and other key areas of relevance to gerontology.
- Academic OneFile
Provides indexing for over 8,000 scholarly journals, industry periodicals, general interest magazines and newspapers.
- Access UN
This databases contains complete bibliographic citations of UN documents and publications. Indexes United Nations documents since 1946.
- Access World News [NewsBank]
Full text of 600+ U.S. newspapers and 260+ English-language newspapers from other countries worldwide.
- Accessible Archives
Provides full text, searchable access to important American magazines and newspapers from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
- ACM Digital Library
Full-text archive of ACM publications, including journals, magazines, transactions, proceedings, and newsletters.
- Afghanistan and the U.S., 1945-1963: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files
Digital archive of U.S. State Department Central Classified Files on internal and foreign affaris of Afghanistan.
- Africa Development Indicators
Africa Development Indicators contains over 1,600 indicators and time series from 1961 to the present for 53 countries.
- Africa-Wide Information (EBSCO)
Africa-Wide is a combination of two well-known databases, South African Studies and African Studies, published by Ebsco.
- African American Almanac
Provides historical and current information on African American history, society, and culture in 28 topical chapters.
- African American Biographical Database
The Largest Electronic Collection of Biographical Information on African Americans - 1790-1950.
- African American Newspapers
Includes searchable full text of a number of African-American newspapers published from 1827 to 1902 from Accessible Archives
- African American Newspapers, 1827-1998
African American Newspapers, 1827-1998 provides online access to approximately 270 U.S. newspapers from 35 states.
- African American Periodicals, 1825-1995
Over 170 periodicals from 26 states by and about African Americans.
- African American Poetry (Chadwyck-Healey version)
African American Poetry contains nearly 3,000 poems by African American poets of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
- African American Years: Chronologies of American History and Experience
This chronology presents the history of African Americans from pre-colonial times to the present..
- AgEcon Search
Open access repository of literature on agricultural and applied economics.
- AgeLine (EBSCO)
Indexes aging-related content from the health sciences, psychology, sociology, social work, economics, and public policy.
- Alexander Street Video
Thousands of streaming videos including documentaries, news and historical events, opera, dance and drama performances.
- Alt-Press Watch
Full text of over 200 alternative and independent-press newspapers, magazines and journals.
- Alternative Press Index
Indexes nearly 300 alternative, radical, and left publications, which cover cultural, economic, political and social change.
- America in Protest: Records of Anti-Vietnam War Organizations - Vietnam Veterans Against the War
Digital archive of FBI reports dealing with every aspect of antiwar work carried out by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War.
- America's Historical Newspapers
America's Historical Newspapers provides searchable digital facsimiles of thousands of titles from all 50 states. The collection ...
- America: History & Life with Full Text (EBSCO)
Covers the history and culture of the United States and Canada, from prehistory to the present.
- American Drama 1714-1915
Containing more than 1,500 dramatic works from the colonial period to the beginning of the twentieth century, American Drama 1714–1915 i ...
- American FactFinder
Population, housing and economic census data from ongoing surveys including American Community Survey
- American Indian Correspondence: Presbyterian Historical Society Collection of Missionaries' Letters, 1833-1893
Digital archive of letters to and from the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States.
- American Indian History Online
This database provides access to more than 5,000 years of culture, history, and leaders. 320+ Native American groups are presented ...
- American Indian Movement and Native American Radicalism
Digital archive of FBI files that illustrate the evolution of AIM and the development of Native American radicalism.
- American Memory Online Collection
Digital record of American history from the Library of Congress, including texts, sound recordings, images, prints, maps and sheet music.
- American Periodicals (APS)
Searchable, full text of selected American periodicals of all kinds published between 1740 and 1900.
- American Women's History Online
Biographies, historical and topical subject entries, speeches and other documents, maps and charts, photographs, and timelines that ...
- Ancient and Medieval History Online
Covers covers five ancient civilizations-Africa, Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Mesoamerica-from 3 to 5 million years ago to flourishing ...
- Los Angeles Sentinel (1934-2005)
Full-text searchable access to the complete backfile of Los Angeles Sentinel (1934-2005).
- Annual Reviews
Provides access to authoritative, analytic reviews of research in 29 focused disciplines within the Biological & Medical, Physical, and ...
- Anthropology Plus (EBSCO)
Comprehensive, international index to the literature of anthropology and archaeology.
Archive of journals published by the American Anthropological Association (AAA), most with full text from V. 1-present.
- AP Images
Online access to over 500,000 photos with detailed captions from the AP news wire. Includes all photos from US and abroad added in the ...
- Archive Finder
A database listing over 200,000 manuscript and other special collections at thousands of repositories in the U.S., U.K. and Ireland.
A guide to historical records, personal papers, and family histories held in archives around the world. Contains nearly a million ...
- Archives Unbound
Gateway to a variety of subject specific digital microfilm collections.
- Arctic and Antarctic Regions (EBSCO)
Arctic & Antarctic Regions is the world's largest collection of international polar databases. With over 1 million records from 1800 to ...
- Arts and Humanities Citation Index (Web of Science)
Index of 1,600 arts and humanities journals that allows searching for articles that cite a known author or work.
- Asia and the West: Diplomacy and Cultural Exchange
Digital archive of records documenting U.S. and British relations with a variety of Asian Nations.
- Atlanta Daily World (1931-2003)
Full-text searchable access to the complete backfile of Atlanta Daily World (1931-2003).
- Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals
Citations to articles from architecture and related periodicals, emphasizing the fields of architectural design and history.
- Baltimore African-American, 1893-1988
Full-text searchable access to the complete backfile from 1893-1988. Includes original page images digitized from microfilm.
- Berg Fashion Library
Cross-searchable access to Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion online, e-books, reference works, images, and more.
- biab: British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography
Database contains publications "on archaeology and the historic environment, historic buildings, maritime and industrial ...
- Biosis Previews
Comprehensive index to life sciences research literature. Covers journals (5000+), reports, meetings (1500+), reviews, and books in all ...
- Black Drama
Contains full text of 1,200 English plays ca. 1850-present by more than 100 playwrights from North America, Africa, and the Caribbean.
- Black Historical Newspapers
Custom ProQuest cross-search of 6 major African American community newspapers published 1893 - 2005.
- Black Short Fiction and Folklore from Africa and the African Diaspora
Approximately 8,000 works of short fiction produced by writers from Africa and the African Diaspora from the earliest times to the present.
- Black Studies Center
Black Studies Center is a fully cross-searchable gateway to historical and current material for researching the past, present and ...
- Black Studies in Video
Documentaries, newsreels, interviews and archival footage covering history, politics,sociology, art and culture.
- Black Thought and Culture
A collection of approximately 100,000 pages of non-fiction writings by major American black leaders.
- Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology
Over 1800 entries, on all aspects of sociology. Includes introductions to sociological theories and research that have developed ...
Price data on all kinds of securities, plus news etc. Available only in Tozzi Finance Center at Ross School of Business.
- Book Review Digest Plus
Indexes 2.8 million reviews of over 850,000 fiction and non-fiction books drawn from over 8,000 periodicals, many in full text.
- British Politics and Society
Digital archive that documents the development of urban centers and the restructuring of society during the Industrial Revolution.
- Business Abstracts with Full Text
Covers 300 international English-language business magazines of all kinds--accounting, finance, management, small business, etc.
- Business Source Complete (EBSCO)
This database contains the largest collection of active, peer-reviewed, business related journals available covering topics such as ...
- Canada's Geographical Names
Search for geographic names in Canada.
- Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (GPO Monthly Catalog) [FirstSearch]
Provides citations to U.S. federal government publications published 1976-2012.
- Center for Geographic Information
Michigan demographic, economic, educational, geographic, and recreation data. Formerly called the Michigan Information Center, CGI now ...
- Central and Eastern European Online Library
An online archive which provides access to full text articles from 184 humanities and social science journals pertaining to Central, ...
- Chadwyck-Healey Literature Collections
Portal to the following full-text American and English literature databases: * AFRICAN AMERICAN POETRY * AMERICAN POETRY * AMERICAN ...
- Chicago Defender, 1909-1975
Searchable access to the backfile of The Chicago Defender, a leading African-American newspaper, available in full page images ...
- Chicano Database
Articles on a wide-range of topics in the social sciences & humanities relating to the Chicano and Latino U.S. experience
- Child Care and Early Education Research Connections
Searches the full text of scholarly research, policy briefs, government reports, and other resources in the field of child care and ...
- Child Development
Part of the Macmillan Psychology Reference Series, this title covers issues related to human development from conception through ...
- Child Development & Adolescent Studies
Index to current and historical literature related to growth and development of children through the age of 21. Book reviews and ...
Full text of conference proceedings, think tank articles, some journals, and working papers on international affairs.
- CINAHL Complete (EBSCO)
Primary journal index for nursing and allied health professions.
- CJH Digital Collections
An online multimedia catalog of materials documenting Jewish culture and history from across the globe. The catalog currently contains ...
An online collection of books, journals, reference works, etc. on the brain and cognitive sciences.
- Cold War: Voices of Confrontation and Conciliation
Digital archive of oral histories documenting the Cold War.
- Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online
A fully searchable, encyclopedic database of over 165,000 geographical places and features of all kinds. Lists names, descriptions, and ...
- UN Commodity Trade Statistics
International trade statistics, detailed by commodity and partner country, for over 130 countries. Commodities are classified according ...
- Communication Abstracts
Communication Abstracts, formerly produced by Sage Publications, is a comprehensive source of information about communication-related ...
- Comprehensive Clinical Psychology
Comprehensive treatment of clinical psychology across the lifespan.
- Comprehensive Handbook of Social Work and Social Welfare
A thorough and up-to-date review of the rapidly evolving and growing field of social work.
- Computer Database
Provides a combination of indexing, abstracts and full text for over 600 leading business and technical publications in the computer, ...
- Concise Medical Dictionary
Contains over 12,000 clear and concise entries written by a team of medical experts.
- Conference Board Research Reports
Contains the latest research in business management and US and global economics. Proprietary, nonbiased full text reports include ...
- Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities
An index to the published literature of conferences, symposia, seminars, colloquia, etc. in social sciences & humanities.
Offers full-text bills and bill tracking back to the 93rd Congress (1973) and also Congressional committee information.
- Correspondence from German Concentration Camps and Prisons, 1936-1945
Digital archive of letters, currency, personal effects, etc. belonging to prisoners held in German camps and prisons during World War II.
- Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (Wiley)
This encyclopedia of psychology and related fields has over 1200 entries contributed by 700 experts worldwide. Fourth edition updated ...
- Counseling and Therapy in Video
Streaming video collection for the study of social work, psychotherapy, psychology, and counseling.
- CQ Congress Collection
Provides analysis of members of Congress and data on how they vote on legislation
- CQ Magazine
Analytical articles on Congressional legislation and politics since 1983 and roll call votes since 1995.
- CQ Press Electronic Library
Collection of directories, encyclopedias and guides on US politics and policy from CQ Press.
- CQ Researcher
CQ Researcher is noted for its in-depth, unbiased coverage of health, social trends, criminal justice, international affairs, ...
- CQ Voting and Elections Collection
- Criminal Justice Abstracts (EBSCO)
Provides comprehensive coverage of the international literature on criminology (incl. journals, books, reports, dissertations, and more).
CultureGrams is a leading reference for concise, reliable, and up-to-date cultural information on countries across the globe
- Current Index to Statistics
A bibliographic index to publications in statistics and related fields. Covers all articles from 106 "core journals," selected ...
- UN Data
You can find official statistics produced by countries and compiled by United Nations data system, as well as estimates and ...
- Data-Planet Statistical Datasets
Create tables, charts and maps with wide range of variables using data from governments and private organizations
- Datapedia of the United States: American History in Numbers
Contains the most significant historical statistics of the United States from 1789 to 2003, with projections to 2050.
This database provides worldwide current and historical financial and economic data, as well as a reporting/charting interface. ...
- DeGruyter Journals
Includes journals previously published by Berkeley Electronic Press
- Dialnet – Universidad de la Rioja
Indexes over 5,000 journals primarily in Spanish with an emphasis on the Humanities and Social Sciences. It also includes a growing ...
- Dictionary of Literary Biography
Contains full text essays outlining the lives and careers of American and British authors from all eras and genres and summarizing the ...
- Dissertations & Theses @ CIC Institutions (Big Ten Universities)
Describes dissertations and some master theses filed at CIC/Big Ten universities, with full text for most since 1997.
- Dissertations & Theses @ University of Michigan
Describes most dissertations filed at University of Michigan, with full text for most since 1990.
Dyabola is a suite of databases produced by the German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut) (DAI). Chief among ...
Index and abstract of journals and books, dissertations, and working papers for the field of economics.
- Economist Historical Archive 1843-2011
A complete searchable archive of every issue of The Economist from 1843 to four years ago, with full-color images, multiple search ...
- Education Abstracts (with Full Text)
Covers 400+ English-language periodicals and yearbooks on every age and sector of the educational community from preschool through college.
- Educational Administration Abstracts (EBSCO)
This datatbase includes bibliographic records covering areas related to educational administration, including educational leadership, ...
- eHRAF Archaeology
Provides researchers and students access to archaeological materials for comparative studies within and across regions. Contains ...
- eHRAF World Cultures
Nearly one million pages of ethnographic texts on over 280 of the world's cultures, past and present.
- Electronic Collections Online
Indexing and browsable tables of contents for over 2,800 journals in all subject areas, with full text for the 351 of them subscribed ...
- EMIS Emerging Markets
Provides full text news, reports, and financial information for emerging markets in Asia, Europe, and Latin America.
- Encyclopaedia Judaica
The standard reference work on Judaism, with more than 21,000 signed entries on Jewish life, culture, history and religion, written by ...
- Encyclopaedia of Judaism
Online version of The Encyclopaedia of Judaism, Second Edition (2005).
- Encyclopedia of Adolescence
Encyclopedia addressing major issues of adolescent development and behavior.
- Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History
The Encyclopedia is a 5-volume set and a supplement covering all aspects of the African-American experience from 1619 to the present ...
- Encyclopedia of African American Education
Articles on the education of African Americans from preschool through professional school, from historical and modern perspectives.
- Encyclopedia of African American Society
This two-volume reference work details the ways in which the tenets and foundations of African American culture have given rise to ...
- Encyclopedia of African American Society
This two-volume reference work details the ways in which the tenets and foundations of African American culture have given rise to ...
- Encyclopedia of Aging
Written by experts for a general audience, articles cover topics such as biology, medicine, economics, law, psychology, sociology, and ...
- Encyclopedia of American Immigration
Encyclopedia of American Immigration traces the scope and sweep of U.S. immigration from the earliest colonial settlements to the ...
- Encyclopedia of Archaeology
Encompasses all aspects of archaeology, including the nature and diversity of archaeology as a scientific discipline, the practice of ...
- Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education
Encyclopedia with over 300 entries on the use of two or more languages in teaching the K-12 curriculum of the United States. Josué M. ...
- Encyclopedia of Black Studies
The Encyclopedia of Black Studies has brought together the work of nearly 200 scholars with the objective of securing a baseline for ...
- Encyclopedia of Communication and Information
Provides a comprehensive overview of universal modes of communication, the media used to communicate, theories of communication and ...
- Encyclopedia of Community
Whether the reader is a student, researcher, or professional in the field of psychology, sociology, or even economics, this four-volume ...
- Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice
An interdisciplinary source that addresses not only law but also sociology, psychology, history and economics. Entries vary widely from ...
- Encyclopedia of Disability
This encyclopedia represents the first attempt to bring an authoritative reference resource to the many faces of disability. Originally ...
- Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning
This encyclopedia is broad in scope, topics ranging from historical predecessors of distributed education as we know it today to ...
- Encyclopedia of Education
Offers a complete view of the institutions, people, processes, roles, and philosophies in educational practice in the United States and ...
- Encyclopedia of Education Law
The Encyclopedia of Education Law is intended to be a comprehensive source on education law for undergraduate and graduate students, ...
- Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration
Encyclopedia with over 600 entries, describing the theories, research, terms, concepts, ideas, and historiesthat represent educational ...
- Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology
Over 275 articles on topics such as aggression, the relationship between poverty and achievement in schools, lifelong learning, ...
- Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories
Articles on all aspects of feminism
- Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent
The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent contains thousands of ready-to-use facts from the fields of education, ...
- Encyclopedia of Human Behavior
Second edition of this comprehensive reference source on human action and reaction, psychology, perception and personality
- Encyclopedia of Human Development
Includes about 650 articles on all aspects of human development, a field which describes the growth and development of the human being, ...
- Encyclopedia of Humor Studies
Explores the concept of humor in history and modern society in the United States and internationally.
- Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
Explores ways that editorial content of all types is developed, presented, stored, analyzed and regulated around the world.
- Encyclopedia of Language and Education
Global coverage of language and education, with special emphasis on multicultural and bilingual education. Second edition, published ...
- Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics
Second edition of this comprehensive, 14-volume encyclopedia, with over 3,000 entries. Published in 2005.
- Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education
The Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education is intended to serve as a comprehensive source on the law of higher education for ...
- Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender History in America
A three-volume survey of more than 400 years of lesbian and gay history and culture in the United States.
- Encyclopedia of Life Sciences
Provides 3000+ peer-reviewed articles, images, a glossary of terms, news, and some multimedia files on a wide variety of life sciences ...
- Encyclopedia of Media Violence
Provides a comprehensive evidence-based examination of theory, research and debates related to media violence.
- Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences
Provides an interdisciplinary look at the relationship between philosophy and the social sciences.
- Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society
In this encyclopedia, an international group of scholars and writers provides access to the fascinating literature that has explored ...
- Encyclopedia of Population
Provides coverage of demographic topics both in the core field and in neighboring disciplines. Encompasses the large-scale changes in ...
- Encyclopedia of Recreation and Leisure in America
A two-volume survey of the pursuit of leisure in the United States, from Colonial to modern times, presented through 271 alphabetically ...
- Encyclopedia of Social Measurement
Captures the data, techniques, theories and applications of assigning numerical values to social phenomena.
- Encyclopedia of Sociology
This classic reference has been updated to reflect many changes in society and in the field of sociology in recent years. Articles ...
- Encyclopedia of Stress
Presents recent research on stress and the effect of stress on physical illness.
- Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education
This encyclopedia provides a comprehensive background for those interested in issues involving schools and society. Touches on aspects ...
- Encyclopedia of Transportation: Social Science and Policy
Covers the topic of transportation across multiple disciplines within the social sciences and related areas.
- Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict
Comprehensively addresses conflict on all levels, from interpersonal to international.
- Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures Online
Covers research on gender studies and the Islamic world.
- Environmental Impact Statements: Digests
Summaries and key issues from government-released environmental impact statements, including project descriptions, positive impacts, ...
- Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management
A multidisciplinary database providing comprehensive coverage of the environmental sciences.
- ERIC - Education Resources Information Center
ERIC is a bibliographic database of more than 1.1 million education-related citations going back to 1966. This database also includes ...
- ERIC [FirstSearch]
Indexes journal articles, government publications, etc. on education and related topics.
- Essay and General Literature Index
Indexes articles in books (anthologies and essay collections) in the humanities and social sciences published in the US, UK & Canada.
- Essential Science Indicators
Research institution performance statistics extrapolated from Web of Science indexing of scholarly journal citations.
- Ethnic NewsWatch
A full text database of 200 publications of the ethnic, minority and native press. Searchable in both English and Spanish, with titles ...
- Ethnographic Video Online
Over 1800 streaming ethnographic documentaries and interviews of anthropologists
- Euromonitor Passport
Offers extensive industry, demographic, consumer and economic data for numerous countries worldwide. Includes forecast data to 2010, ...
- Europa World Plus
Online version of the Europa World Year Book and all nine volumes of the Europa Regional Surveys of the World series, containing ...
- Evangelism and the Syria-Lebanon Mission: Correspondence of the Board of Foreign Missions, 1869-1910
Digital archive documenting the missionary work of the Presbyterian Church in Syria and Lebanon.
- Expanded Academic ASAP
Provides a combination of indexing, abstracts, images, and full text for over 3,000 scholarly and general interest journals embracing ...
- Family & Society Studies Worldwide (EBSCO)
A comprehensive resource of research, policy and practice literature in the fields of family science, human ecology and development, ...
- Family Studies Abstracts
Journal and magazine index of areas related to family studies, including marriage, divorce and family therapy. This index contains more ...
Statistical database from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT provides time-series and cross sectional ...
- Faulkner's Advisory for Information Technology Studies (FAITS)
Library of reports covering IT infrastructure, wireless technology, security, data networking, technology vendors, and more. Useful for ...
- Federal Surveillance of African Americans, 1920-1984
Digital collection of documents related to the FBI's investigation of those deemed politically suspect.
- Federal Surveillance of the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño
Digital archive of documents related to the FBIs efforts to disrupt the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño.
- FIAF FilmArchive Database
Combined access to four different online research tools created by the FIAF: 1) Index to Film Periodicals, covering more than 400,000 ...
- FIAF Index to Film Periodicals
Contains descriptions of over 400,000 articles published in more than 345 of the world's foremost academic and popular film journals. ...
- Film Literature Index
Annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries cover-to-cover and 200 other periodicals selectively for ...
- Filmakers Library Online
Video streaming of over 1000 documentary films previously distributed by Filmakers Library.
Access to 15 databases provided by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) using their FirstSearch interface.
- Food Studies Online
Brings together documents, videos, advertisements and archival collections on food and society.
- Foundation Directory Online
Profiles over 105,000 U.S.-based foundations, describing programs, areas of funding, types of support, recent grants made, etc.
- FRANCIS (International Humanities and Social Studies)
Indexes 4,200 European-language journals in the humanities and social sciences.
- Gale Business Insights: Global
Compiled information on U.S. and international businesses, industries and products.
- Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America
152 original essays on specific minority and ethnic groups in the U.S. covering culture, history, settlement patterns, etc.
- Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History
Designed to answer such key questions as: How has the U.S. Constitution shaped the economy of the United States? What were the ...
- Gale Virtual Reference Library
Provides online access to over 1,300 reference works from Gale, Macmillan, and other publishers.
- Gender Studies Database (EBSCO)
Gender Studies Database covers the full spectrum of gender-engaged scholarship inside and outside academia.
- General BusinessFile ASAP
Provides a combination of indexing, abstracts and full text for over 2,900 business and trade publications. Includes directory listings ...
- General OneFile
Provides indexing for over 8,000 scholarly and general interest journals and newspapers, with full text articles included for over ...
- General Reference Center Gold
Provides indexing for 1,100 general interest magazines, newspapers, business and industry journals, and reference books, with full text ...
- Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)
Contains informaton about almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features in the United States.
- GEONet Names Server
The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the National Imagery and Mapping Agency's (formerly Defense Mapping Agency) database ...
- Gerritsen Collection: Women's History Online 1543-1945
The Gerritsen curators gathered more than 4,700 publications from continental Europe, the U.S., the United Kingdom, Canada, and New ...
- Getty Thesaurus of Geographical Names
This thesaurus contains around 1,000,000 names and other information about places, including all continents and nations of the modern ...
- Global Development Finance
GDF provides statistical data on the external debt of 128 developing countries. Covers external debt stocks and flows, major economic ...
- Global Economic Monitor
Global Economic Monitor provides daily and monthly commentary on global economic conditions along with direct access to high frequency ...
- Godey's Lady's Book 1830-1898
Under the editorship of Sarah Josepha Hale, Godey's Lady's Book (1830-1898) became one of the most influential U.S. women's magazines ...
- Google Scholar @ U-M (with U-M Ann Arbor MGet It Links)
Searches for scholarly documents on the World Wide Web, with the added feature of "Availability at UMichigan" links.
- Green Atlas
Compendium of 100 maps and data sets with multimedia elements illustrating concepts in green issues and environmentalism
Reports on U.S. environmental, energy & natural resources issues as they are addressed by government & media.
- Guide to U.S. Environmental Policy
Investigates the political, social and economic forces driving policy decisions about the protection and future of the environment.
- Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy
Traces the growth and development of diplomatic policies and traditions, and the shifts in public opinion that shape diplomatic trends.
- Guide to U.S. Health and Health Care Policy
Shows how issues and actions are translated into public policies for managing all levels of healthcare concerns and crises.
- Handbook of Cognition
Provides an overview of current theory and research in cognitive psychology.
- Handbook of Feminist Family Studies
Showcases feminist family scholarship and provides both a retrospective and a prospective overview of the field.
- Handbook of Gender and Women's Studies
A useful introduction to gender theory, this handbook shows the plurality and diversity of gender and women's studies.
- Handbook of Latin American Studies
A bibliography on Latin America consisting of works selected and annotated by scholars. Edited by the Hispanic Division of the Library ...
- Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies
Provides an overview of lesbian and gay studies, including history and theory, identity and community, institutions, and politics.
- Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Social Consequences of ICTs
This handbook sets out boundaries of new media research and scholarship and provides a definitive statement of the field.
- Handbook of Paleoanthropology
By Winfried Henke and Ian Tattersall.
- Handbook of Political Theory
This handbook reviews political theory from thematic, conceptual and historical perspectives.
- Handbooks in Economics
Full-text of all volumes of the North-Holland Handbooks in Economics series.
- Health and Psychosocial Instruments (EBSCO)
Indexes journal articles that describe or utilize tests and measures used in health care, psychosocial sciences and organizational behavior.
- Health and Wellness Resource Center
Provides access to medical, health, and wellness information from authoritative medical sources.
- Health Reference Center Academic
Indexes 205 nursing, allied health, and medical journals, consumer health magazines, newsletters and more.
- HeritageQuest Online
Resources for historical & genealogical research on the US & Canada: US census, books, PERSI, war & freedmen's records.
- Higher Education Abstracts
Abstracts from journals, conference proceedings, and research reports pertaining to participants in higher education.
- Hispanic American Periodicals Index
Provides citations drawn from more than 400 journals, primarily in Spanish or English, which cover Latin America, the Caribbean, and ...
- Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition
A compendium of statistics from over 1,000 sources. Contains more than 37,000 annual time series of quantitative historical information ...
- Hormones, Brain and Behavior
Second edition of the reference work on the effects of hormones on the brain, resulting in specific behaviors.
- Human Resources Abstracts (EBSCO)
Human Resources Abstracts includes bibliographic records covering essential areas related to human resources, including human resource ...
- Humanities Abstracts (with Full Text)
Covers 700 periodicals in art, film, journalism, linguistics, music, performing arts, philosophy, religion, history, literature, etc.
- Humanities and Social Sciences Index (with Abstracts and Full Text)
Covers 1,500+ periodicals across all humanities and social sciences fields, 1907 - present.
- IBISWorld Industry Market Research Reports
IBISWorld's Industry Market Research Reports cover a wide-ranging number of U.S. industries and are updated every four months ensuring ...
- IBZ (International Bibliography of Periodical Literature)
IBZ is a multilingual bibliography that indexes over 8,700 periodicals primarily in the arts, humanities and social sciences.
- ICPSR (Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research) Data Archive
Archive of computerized, numeric social science data, including demography, economics, health care, politics, social behavior, and more.
- IEEE Xplore
Full-text access to IEEE transactions, journals, magazines, conference proceedings, standards & online courses, plus related e-books.
Provides annual and infra-annual labour market statistics for over 100 indicators and 230 countries, areas and territories.
- IMF eLibrary Data
Contains IFS, BOPS, DOTS, and GFS data.
- In Response to the AIDS Crisis: Records of the National Commission on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 1983-1994
Digital archive of primary sources documenting the activities of the National Commission on Acquired Deficiency Syndrome (NCAIDS).
- Index to Current Urban Documents
Guide to the reports and research that are generated by local government agencies, civic organizations, academic and research ...
- Index to Hebrew Periodicals
Contains over 715,000 items, including: 1) The Index to Hebrew Periodicals, 1977 to date; 2) Eretz Israel Data Base (Earlier and ...
- Index to Jewish Periodicals
Index to Jewish Periodicals is the definitive index on Jewish history, activity and thought. This database provides a comprehensive ...
This database provides key statistics of India, including census, election, foreign trade, health data and more.
- Information Please Almanac
Web site for the popular compilations of facts and statistics covering politics, current events, geography, history, business, sports, ...
- Informe (Gale)
Provides indexing, images and full text of popular Spanish language and bilingual magazines and journals.
On ENGINEERING VILLAGE platform, covers the world-wide literature in astronomy, physics, electronics and electrical engineering...
- International Encyclopedia of Communication
Published in association with the International Communication Association (ICA), the encyclopedia contains over 1300 entries that range ...
- International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies
Organization studies is the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, ...
- International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (IESBS)
Online version of the largest reference work published in the social and behavioral sciences
- International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (IESBS), Second Edition
Second edition of IESBS, the most comprehensive encyclopedia of the social sciences.
- International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
Second edition of the 8-volume IESS. Includes 3000 articles, including wealth and income distribution, economic aid, food production, ...
- International Historical Statistics
Historical statistics (1750-2010) on the economics, populations, labor force, education, and transportation of nations.
- International Index to Black Periodicals Full Text
Black Studies Center journals module: index to currently published scholarly and popular periodicals in Black studies
- International Studies Encyclopedia
A comprehensive reference work for the field of international studies and international relations.
The most comprehensive source for US nationwide public opinion polls archived from surveys going back to 1935
- Japanese-American Relocation Camp Newspapers: Perspectives on Day-to-Day Life
Digital archive of articles published by interned Japanese-Americans between 1942 and 1945.
- Jewish Underground Resistance: The David Diamant Collection
Digital archive of documents collected over a period of 30 years dealing primarily with the Jewish segment of the French resistance
- Journal Citation Reports
Provides citation impact factors for 8,400+ scholarly and technical journals worldwide.
Provides full-text access to the archives of core scholarly journals in the arts, humanities, social sciences and sciences.
LABORSTA is an international Labor office database on labor statistics operated by the ILO Department of Statistics
Landscan provides worldwide gridded population data available each year from 2000 to 2013
- Latin America in Video
Documentaries from Latin America. Topics include human rights, immigration, popular culture, education, political history.
- Latin American Anarchist and Labour Periodicals
Digital archive of periodicals pertaining to the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist period in the history of Latin American labor movements.
- LearningExpress Library
Online test preparation materials for academic, civil service, military, and professional certification exams.
- Left Index
Covers 120+ journals and blogs with a leftist viewpoint concerning a variety of political and social issues.
- Legal Information Reference Center
Legal self-help and reference books
Indexes major law reviews, law journals, specialty law and bar association journals, and legal newspapers covering U.S. federal and ...
- LexisNexis Academic
Provides full-text access to a wide range of news, business, legal, and reference information, including hundreds of U.S. and foreign ...
- LexisNexis State Capital
Bill status and text for all 50 states since 1990; full text of current state legal and regulatory codes; state political newsletters; ...
- LGBT Life with Full Text
Indexes the popular and scholarly literature addressing issues related to the Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender community
- Liberation Movement in Africa and African America
Digital archive of FBI documents detailing surveillance of the ALSC and A-ARPR.
- Library Literature and Information Science Index (with Full Text)
Covers 400+ library and information science journals, plus conference proceedings, pamphlets, library school theses, selected books, etc.
- Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA)
Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts,(LISTA) indexes more than 600 periodicals, plus books, research reports and ...
- Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts
Indexes literature in linguistics and related disciplines.
- LISA: Library and Information Science Abstracts
LISA abstracts over 440 periodicals from 68 countries in the fields of library and information science.
- Making of the Modern World,1450-1914
Digital and searchable editions of more than 62,000 titles, published between 1450 and 1914.
- Mass Observation Online
Digital archive of Mass Observation, a social research organisation that recorded life in Britain, 1937-1967.
- MathSciNet (AMS)
MathSciNet is a searchable database providing Web access to "Mathematical Reviews", the journal of record which indexes, reviews and ...
- MEDLINE (Ovid)
The MEDLINE database is widely recognized as the premier source for bibliographic and abstract coverage of biomedical literature.
- Mental Measurements Yearbook
The Mental Measurements Yearbook provides reviews and descriptive information on more than 7,000 commercially available tests.
- Mergent Horizon
Provides information about a firm's products; its relationships with its major customers, suppliers, and partners; its competitors; its ...
- Mergent Online
Provides access to current and historical financial information on 15,000 US and 20,000 foreign companies, both active and inactive, ...
- Mergent WebReports
Mergent WebReports is an online database of 180,000 corporate and industry related documents, including analyst equity reports on over ...
- Michigan Geographic Data Library (MGDL)
From the Michigan Center for Geographic Information. Incorporates the Spatial Data Library of the Department of Natural Resources and ...
- MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences
A comprehensive reference work covering the methodological and theoretical diversity of the cognitive sciences. Includes 471 concise ...
- MLA Directory of Periodicals
Contains information on the journals and series that are covered in the Modern Language Association International Bibliography database.
- MLA International Bibliography
Indexes books and articles published on modern languages, literatures, folklore, and film.
- MLibrary Digital Collections
Access to over 250 text, image, and finding aid collections that provide access to over a million digital objects.
- Municipal Codes
This site allows one to access over 1,000 local municipal codes from almost all states. Seach by state and locale.
- National Geographic Virtual Library
Digital edition of National Geographic Magazine, 1888-current plus online videos, books and images.
NATLEX is a database of national labor, social security, and related human rights legislation.
- NBER Working Paper Series
View and download the full-text of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Papers. Searchable by keyword and browsing ...
- NCJRS - National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts Database
The National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts Database contains summaries of more than 185,000 publications including: ...
- New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics
Contains over 1,850 articles by more than 1500 of the world's leading economists.
- Nihon rekishi chimei taikei
Online version of Nihon rekishi chimei taikei, published by Heibonsha.
Uses the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) protocol to gather millions of free digital resources of all kinds from 1,100+ institutions.
Film of the famous social experiment, featuring the research of social psychologist Stanely Milgram.
- OECD Gender, Institutions and Development Statistics
The Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base presents comparative data on gender equality. It has been compiled from secondary ...
- OECD iLibrary
Online library of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Information on nearly 24 million companies, including large and mid-sized companies in the US and Canada, and worldwide
- Oxford African American Studies Center
Combines more than 7,500 articles by scholars drawn from reference works. Includes the complete text of Africana: The Encyclopedia of ...
- Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History
International in scope and spanning all time periods of human history, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History includes 900 ...
- Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History
Comprehensively covers the role women have played throughout world history. Includes over 650 biographies of influential women.
- PAIS Index
Contains references to nearly 2 million journal articles and other resources on public affairs and public policy worldwide.
- PASCAL and FRANCIS
PASCAL and FRANCIS bibliographic databases in exact, human and social sciences, produced by the Inist-CNRS since 1972.
- Peace Research Abstracts (EBSCO)
THis database includes bibliographic records covering essential areas related to peace research, including conflict resolution, ...
- PEP - Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing
PEP is a full-text digital archive of many of the major works of psychoanalysis.
- Periodicals Index Online
Indexes over 7,000 arts, humanities & social science journals, from their first issues through 2000.
- Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.
- Pew Research Global Attitudes Project
Pew Global Attitudes examines international public opinion on a broad range of issues.
- Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends
Pew Social & Demographic Trends studies behaviors and attitudes of Americans in their daily lives.
- Phyllis Lyon, Del Martin and the Daughters of Bilitis
Provides extensive information on the founding and growth of the homophile movement of the 1950s-80s
- Pittsburgh Courier (1911-2002)
Full-text searchable access to the complete backfile of Pittsburgh Courier (1911-2002).
- Pittsburgh Jewish Newspaper Project
The Pittsburgh Jewish Newspaper Project is composed of The Jewish Criterion (1895-1962), The American Jewish Outlook (1934-1962), and ...
- Polling the Nations
Compilation of questions and responses from more than 18,000 national, state, local and special surveys from over 1700 polling organizations
- Pollution Abstracts
Provides access to environmental information concerning scientific research and government policies on atmosphere, emissions and more.
Covers family planning technology and programs, fertility, population law and policy, demography, maternal and child health, AIDS and more.
- Project MUSE
Full-text access to scholarly journals & e-books published by over 120 scholarly societies & university presses.
Combined access to all ProQuest databases, covering many different fields and full text articles.
- ProQuest Congressional
Includes bills, laws, Congressional publications, hearings, reports, Congressional Record, CRS Reports and executive agency documents
- ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
Descriptions, sometimes with full text, of doctoral dissertations & master theses from US, UK, Canada, Ireland, etc.
- ProQuest Historical Newspapers
Custom ProQuest cross-search of full-text backfiles of 26 U.S. and 32 international English-language newspapers.
- ProQuest History Vault
Primary sources for 19th and 20th century U.S. history
- ProQuest International Data Sets
Sub-national data for countries of the world from national governments, IGOs and private firms
- ProQuest Research Library
Indexes over 5,000 journals and magazines, academic and popular, with full text included for over 3,600.
- ProQuest Statistical Insight
Indexes and abstracts statistical publications from international, US and state governments and businesses
PsycARTICLES contains more than 110,000 searchable full text articles from 60 scholarly journals published by the American ...
This database covers book and film reviews for published materials related to psychology.
- Psychology of Classroom Learning An Encyclopedia
Examines the fundamental psychological aspects of learning such as cognition, motivation, and emotion, as well as individual and ...
Descriptive information about psychological tests, including full text of thousands of tests, from the APA
- Public Administration Abstracts
Journal and magazine index of areas related to public administration, including public administration research, theory, and other areas ...
- Public Affairs Index
Public Affairs Index is a bibliographic database covering all aspects of national and global contemporary public policy issues.
- PubMed @ U-M (with MGet It links)
PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
- Race Relations Abstracts (EBSCO)
Race Relations Abstracts includes bibliographic records covering essential areas related to race relations, including ethnic studies, ...
Selective bibliography of articles in the various fields of Jewish studies and in the study of Eretz Israel. Material is compiled from ...
- Readers Guide Abstracts (with Full Text)
Indexes 450+ popular periodicals published in the U.S. & Canada, with full text from 270 of them.
- Readers Guide Retrospective
Indexes older articles from 240 periodicals published in the U.S. & Canada, 1890-1982.
- Records of the Persian Gulf War
Digital archive of documents related to the diplomatic & military response by the U.S. to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990.
White- and yellow-pages directory listings for all U.S. residences and businesses, supplemented with government information from the ...
Allows users to create personal citation databases by importing references from text files or online databases.
- Responsa Project
Contains works from the Jewish Responsa literature, e.g., rabbinic case-law rulings, the Talmud and other major codes & commentaries, etc.
- RIBA Library
Citations to over 2000 periodicals and 135,000 books held by the Royal Institute of British Architects Library. In addition to ...
- Risk Abstracts
Risk Abstracts provides a source for interdisciplinary perspectives on risk arising from industrial, technological, environmental and ...
- Roper Center for Public Opinion Research
The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research is one of the world's leading archives of social science data, specializing in data from ...
- Roubini Global Economics
Subscription ended 6/23/14. Alternate resources provided.
- Routledge Handbooks Online
Over 400 Routledge Handbooks, International Handbooks and Companions on a wide variety of social sciences and humanities topics
- Safari Tech Books Online
Online access to 30,000+ technical books from O'Reilly & Associates, The Pearson Technology Group, and other publishers.
- SAGE Handbook of Human Rights
This handbook examines human rights from perspectives including law, philosophy, and its mainstreaming in popular culture.
- SAGE Knowledge
A searchable collection of over 130 scholarly encyclopedias, handbooks and reference books in the social sciences.
- Sage Research Methods
Books, journals and reference books on social science research methods. Includes methods map,
- Sage Research Methods Datasets
Collection of datasets developed to help learn research methods
- Sanborn Maps Geo Edition
Geo Edition provides geo-coding and indexing by address for a selection of Sanborn maps.
- Sanborn Maps, 1867-1970
Sanborn maps are large-scale plans of urban areas. Maps of over 12,000 US cities and towns.
- Science Citation Index (Web of Science)
Key index to articles from journals in science and technology. Use to find other articles citing a specific article.
- ScienceDirect (Elsevier Books & Journals Online)
Access to more than 2,000 journals and 20,000 books published by Elsevier Science and its subsidiary publishers
International multi-disciplinary indexing & abstracting database for scientific, medical, technical, and social sciences.
- Scottish Women Poets
Includes full text of some 60 volumes of poetry from approximately 50 poets from 1789 to 1832.
- Shoah Foundation's Visual History Archive (full access)
The Visual History Archive contains 52,000 digitized video interviews with holocaust survivors. Interviewees are primarily Jewish ...
- Shoah Foundation's Visual History Archive Online (catalog & sample testimonies only)
Searchable index and sample testimonies from the full Visual History Archive.
SimplyMap allows you to create thematic maps and reports using demographic, business and marketing data. Log in required for access.
- Social Explorer
Social Explorer provides easy access to demographic information about the United States, from 1790 to present. Create maps and reports.
- Social Science Electronic Data Library
Over 600 health and social science datasets from more than 285 studies, with 9 topically focused collections.
- Social Science Research Network
A repository of research in the areas of accounting, economics, Latin America, and legal scholarship.
- Social Sciences Abstracts (with Full Text)
Covers 625 of the most important English-language journals across all the social sciences.
- Social Services Abstracts
SSA is an index and abstract of current research focused on social work, human services, and related areas.
- Sociology Database
Full text access to more than 300 journals in sociology, social work, and related fields.
- SPORTDiscus (EBSCO)
Comprehensive bibliographic database covering sport, physical fitness, exercise, sports medicine, physical education and more.
- Sports Business Research Network
Provides sports marketing information including: market size and demographics; sports participation, licensing, financial and retail ...
- Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage
Searchable online access to S&P's reference works including: Market Investment News; Register of Corporations, Directors & Executives; ...
Full-text resource that searches across more than 25 medical and drug texts.
- Talmudic Encyclopedia
The Talmudic Encyclopedia includes and explains more than 1500 values regarding Halachic laws and terms, Jewish customs and more - from ...
- Tiananmen Square and U.S.-China Relations, 1989-1993
Digital archive of documents that analyze the 1989 demonstrations, China’s human rights issues and more.
- Transport Database
Contains citations and abstracts published in member countries of the European Conference of Ministers of Transport and associated ...
- Twentieth Century Advice Literature
Brings together instructional, prescriptive, behavioral and etiquette literature that defined standards of conduct
- ULI Development Case Studies
Urban and suburban development case study reports published by the Urban Land Institute (ULI).
The University of Michigan's access to MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases and various full-image biomedical journals.
- Universitatsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main Yiddish Prints
Contains about 800 Yiddish books that belong to the Frankfurt University Library. The texts were printed in Hebrew letters in West, ...
- University of Michigan. Transportation Research Institute Reports
Highway safety research: dynamics of heavy trucks and passenger cars, biomechanics and injury causation, accident causation and ...
An online clinical information resource with emphasis on int. med., obstetrics & gynecology, and family practice. Access only on UM campus
- USA Trade Online
Trade information from the U.S. government. Export and import data for over 18,000 commodities.
- Vanderbilt University Television News Archive
The collection includes nightly news programs broadcast by the national television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) since August 5, 1968, ...
- Very Short Introductions Online
Short ebooks that provide introductions to hundreds of subjects.
- Violence & Abuse Abstracts
Index to scholarly literature of violence and abuse, including family violence, sexual assault and emotional abuse.
- We Were Prepared for the Possibility of Death: Freedom Riders in the South, 1961
Digital archive of FBI documents related to the Congress of Racial Equality's (CORE), Freedom Rides in 1961.
- Web of Science
Core Collection of multidisciplinary indexes which permit searching for articles that cite a known author or work.
- Web of Science (All Databases)
Cross-search access to: Web of Science, BIOSIS, Zoological Record, MEDLINE, etc.
- Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution
Comprehensive encyclopedia of terms relating to the evolutionary history of modern humans.
- Women and Social Movements in the United States: 1600-2000
Primary documents, introductory essays, and a definitive bibliography on the involvement of women in social movements.
- Women and Social Movements International
Collection of primary texts relating to women socal activists around the world, 1840 to present.
- Women's Studies International (EBSCO)
Index to the literature of women's studies. Includes journals, newspapers, books, proceedings and grey literature.
- World Bank e-Library
Online, fully cross-searchable and browsable collection of over 3,900 World Bank publications and policy research working papers.
- World Development Indicators
Provides economic, social and environmental indicators for 210 economies. From the World Bank.
- World Digital Library
Cultural treasures from around the world including rare books, manuscripts, maps, scores, and photos.
- World Education Encyclopedia
Survey of primary and secondary educational systems worldwide.
- World Newspaper Archive
Provides full text searchable access to historical newspapers published in Africa, East Europe, Latin American and South Asia.
- World of Sports Science
Theoretical and practical treatment of sports science including sports medicine, exercise physiology, kinesiology, and biomechanics.
- World Press Encyclopedia
Survey of press and electronic media in 200 countries. Includes number and type of media, press laws, censorship, journalism training.
Combined catalog of 360+ million items of all kinds (books, periodicals, videos, maps, etc.) in 25,000+ libraries worldwide.
- Yizkor (Holocaust Memorial) Books
Yizkor (memorial) books are an invaluable source of information to researchers as they are often the only resource for vital ...
- Young Athlete
Information on sports injuries, physical conditioning and the relationship of physical performance to growth and maturation.